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Goods that are 'too pretty to use' could have big effect on sustainability

Save the Earth with pretty napkins? An ASU team's study says 'yes.'
April 17, 2017

ASU research finds that people are less likely use, enjoy beautiful consumables

Could we help save the Earth by making everyday consumables more beautiful?

An Arizona State University team’s study found that people used a lot fewer paper products when the items were more aesthetically pleasing. That could have big implications for huge restaurant chains that use plain brown napkins, the researchers said.

Freeman Wu, a doctoral student in marketing in the W. P. Carey School of Business, based the idea for his dissertation research on his own experience, when he had some beautiful napkins and, even though he was out of tissues, was reluctant to use them to blow his nose.

“I wondered, ‘Is this even rational?’ This napkin was manufactured for my consumption. Why was I treating it like a work of art?” asked Wu, whose paper “It’s Too Pretty to Use! When and How Enhanced Product Aesthetics Discourage Usage and Lower Consumption Enjoyment” appears in the Journal of Consumer Research.

His co-authors were his advisers, Adriana Samper, an assistant professor of marketing, and Andrea Morales, a professor of marketing, both in the W. P. Carey School of Business at ASU, and Gavan Fitzsimons, professor of marketing at Duke University.

The researchers ran seven studies comparing “pretty” and “plain.” One was in the bathroom of a Scottsdale fitness club. They stocked the single stall with plain toilet paper for two weeks and then with Christmas-designed toilet paper for another two weeks. Traffic in the gym was constant over both periods.

The resultsThis averaged out to each person using 6.66 sheets of the plain compared with 3.7 sheets of the fancy.: The gym went through 21 rolls of plain toilet paper but only 10 rolls of the Christmas paper.

An ASU team ran a study comparing "plain" and "pretty" goods. Team members are (from left) Adriana Samper, Freeman Wu and Andrea Morales. Photo by Deanna Dent/ASU Now

 Another study compared paper napkins. Subjects were randomly assigned a plain or a prettily designed napkin and then were given goldfish crackers to eat while watching videos. People who had the pretty napkin were much less likely to use it to clean off their hands.

“The plain ones they tore up, spit out their gum in them, crumpled them. The high-aesthetic ones they were much more likely to leave in pristine condition,” Wu said.

After the video, all the subjects were asked to rate their emotions, and the people who used the pretty napkins were more likely to report negative emotions.

So not only are people less likely to use pretty consumables, they also feel bad about it when they do.

The team took that concept a step farther with a cupcake study. Undergraduates were assigned to receive either a fancy cupcake with a beautiful frosting rose on top or a plain cupcake. They ate the cupcakes while watching videos.

“People ate less of the high aesthetic cupcake, and people actually enjoyed eating the cupcake less in the high-aesthetic condition,” Wu said.

“Once people see that they’ve taken something beautiful and turned it into something ugly through consumption, that leads to lower enjoyment as well.”

So why do people feel this way?

“We think it’s the perception of effort. People infer that a beautiful cupcake or napkin takes more effort — somebody had to come up with that design,” Wu said.

“Because we as consumers naturally appreciate other peoples’ efforts, and consumption of these products basically entails ruining the design, we’re reluctant to destroy the effort these products represent.”

They tested the effort theory with two online surveys. In one, respondents were asked to imagine that they spilled something in a bakery and needed to grab a wad of napkins to wipe it up. They could choose either bright blue or plain white napkins. Eighty percentThis was replicated in a lab study, in which subjects were told to test a lotion and then allowed to choose a napkin to wipe their hands with, and they were more likely to choose the plain ones. chose the plain napkins.

Then the researchers flipped it. When respondents were told that, in the same scenario, the “prettier” napkins actually required less effort to manufacture than the plain ones, 64 percent chose the pretty ones.

Samper said that previous research has shown that people will pay more for pretty items.

“But we were able to show they’ll pay more, but they enjoy it less and are more hesitant to use it,” she said.

In their conclusion, the team said that the results could affect manufacturers because while people are more likely to pay extra for beautiful items, they’re less likely to use and enjoy them, which could mean eventually buying less. So a spurt in short-term sales might not translate to long-term profitability.

Another intriguing consequence of the cupcake study could be in obesity research. The paper calls for more investigation into whether highly aesthetic presentation of foods could reduce consumption.

Wu and Samper said that “Too Pretty To Use” has big implications for sustainability. Chains that use plain, unbleached napkins might entice customers to grab big piles of them as opposed to fancier napkins that consumers use sparingly.

“With low-effort products, you don’t even worry about how much you’re consuming,” Samper said.

“You’re licensing people to use as much as they want.”

Mary Beth Faller

reporter , ASU Now


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How is a star born? ASU astronomers are helping NASA find the answer.
April 18, 2017

An ASU astronomer is helping design and build new balloon-borne observatory to explore how stars and solar systems form

A missing link lies in the chain of astronomers' understanding of how stars and planetary systems are born, but a team of scientists and engineers from Arizona State University's School of Earth and Space Exploration is on track to help find it.

"Astronomers have an idea how the Milky Way Galaxy's giant clouds of dust and molecular gas produce stars," SESE astronomer Chris Groppi said. "But we don't have a good idea how these clouds form in the first place."

To discover this is the aim of a newly funded NASA project named GUSTO, which is led by astronomer Christopher Walker of the University of Arizona. The project also involves Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Netherlands Institute for Space Research.

GUSTO is short for — take a deep breath — Galactic and Extragalactic Ultra-Long-Duration Balloon-Borne Spectroscopic-Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory.

As its full name suggests, this observatory won't be located on Earth. Instead, it'll soar at high altitude in the atmosphere: about 21 miles up, roughly three times higher than passenger jets typically cruise.

At this altitude the balloon-borne observatory will float above 99 percent of Earth's atmosphere. Effectively, the observatory will be out in space where it can view the universe mostly unimpeded.

Building on NASA's experience with balloon flights launched from Antarctica, the GUSTO project combines a new balloon of advanced design, plus a 30-inch-aperture telescope with two dozen detectors. The detectors cover a spectrum of "colors" that range between thermal infrared (heat radiation) and microwaves.

"This part of the spectrum," Groppi said, "is where we can track characteristic interstellar gases — ionized carbon, oxygen and nitrogen — as they cool off and collapse into clouds that will eventually become stars and probably planetary systems."

The project plans to use GUSTO to scan much of the Milky Way galaxy and all of a small nearby galaxy called the Large Magellanic Cloud. Project astronomers expect that this study will serve as a template to help them understand other galaxies.

"For GUSTO, our role at SESE is to design and build the processing electronics that handle the raw signals coming from the telescope and going to the detectors," Groppi said. GUSTO analyzes the sky in three different "colors." But each color uses eight detectors, so the entire instrument package must handle and process signals involving 24 detectors in all.

SESE electrical engineer Hamdi Mani and electronics technician Justin Matthewson are together responsible for designing and building the core of the processor, Groppi said. "Moreover, SESE astrophysics grad student Marko Neric will be working on both the engineering part and, later, the science from GUSTO."

GUSTO is coming at an appropriate time, Groppi said. Advances in detectors and in NASA's long-duration balloon capabilities make such an astronomical survey possible.

"To get data from previous Antarctic balloon experiments," Groppi said, "flights had to end when the winds at high altitude threatened to carry the balloon away from Antarctica. If we didn't halt a flight, we'd lose the instrument package and the data." Typical flights lasted 55 days or less.

"We don't have that problem anymore," he said. "We'll be sending GUSTO on a flight of at least 100 days, and we hope even longer." The key to a long flight is that GUSTO will send back its rough data via satellite links to the ground for processing and analysis.

And no longer confined to Antarctic airspace, the GUSTO balloon could drift away from the continent, over the open sea, as far as Australia. In fact, the project's astronomers would be quite happy if the balloon drifts even farther north, because that would let the telescope observe more of the northern reaches of the Milky Way and its clouds of gas and dust, which are mostly out of view from the southern hemisphere.

"We've been working on proposals to answer this science question since 2003," Groppi said. "We're all thrilled that we finally get to do it."


Top image: A team of researchers from ASU's School of Earth and Space Exploration will build a key component for a NASA science mission called GUSTO. The project aims to discover how interstellar material comes together to make clouds of gas and dust — like these in the Milky Way — that give birth to new stars and planetary systems. Image by NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team

Robert Burnham

Science writer , School of Earth and Space Exploration