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ASU study shows friends play essential roles in keeping Mom happy.
October 28, 2015

New ASU research shows the critical role relationships have in keeping a mother happy, healthy and able to give of herself

A mother is the tireless supporter of her family, very often setting aside her own needs to tend to her children's, a task that knows no schedules or time limits.

But who supports Mom?

Two Arizona State University researchers looked into what factors bear the biggest impact on keeping a mother psychologically healthy, and they say unconditional acceptance by friends and authenticity in relationships play essential roles in keeping Mom happy — and thus grounded in her tasks with child-rearing and development.

In what is described as the first known study to delve into the phenomenological experience of motherhood, Suniya Luthar, a Foundation Professor of psychologyThe Department of Psychology is a unit of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. at ASU, and post-doctoral research associate Lucia Ciciolla asked more than 2,000 well-educated, upper-middle-class mothers what factors helped them cope with motherhood. This group, the researchers said, is increasingly described as being at “high risk” for parenting stress, because over time, they have come to spend vastly greater number of hours per week on children’s activities and commitments, as compared with well-educated fathers and less-educated mothers.

In “Who mothers mommy? Factors that contribute to mothers’ well-being,” published in the early online issue of Developmental Psychology, Luthar and Ciciolla said that four factors (out of seven) stood out as main contributors to helping Mom’s equanimity of spirit and keeping distress at bay. They are unconditional acceptance, feeling comforted when needed, authenticity in relationships and friendship satisfaction.

The authors reported that being married was not related to mothers’ psychological well-being; more significant was the quality of the marriage. And even when women were satisfied with their partners, there were powerful effects for the quality of women’s relationships.

“Relationships with spouses are important but clearly not determinative to a mother’s well being,” Luthar said. “Our findings show the strong potential protective power of other close relationships — satisfaction with the frequency of visiting with friends had significant unique associations with all seven adjustment outcomes.”

Luthar’s work on this study is a by-product of her more than 25 years of work on resilience among children facing adversities. Resilience researchers have found that the single most powerful “protective factor” for kids is having a strong, supportive bond with the primary parent.  As mothers are typically primary parents — across socioeconomic strata — Luthar is now deliberately focused on trying to unravel what best helps mothers themselves to function well. 

“Developmental science is replete with studies on what moms do and do not do, what they should do and should not do,” she says, “but there is almost no attention to what might mothers need to negotiate the inevitable challenges in sustaining ‘good enough parenting’ across decades.”

One goal of the study, Luthar said, was to test the stereotype that mothers today are excessively invested in their children, as embodied in the phrase “helicopter parents.” There was no support for this stereotype in the study findings.

“Our results yield little support for views that as a group, upper-middle-class mothers’ well-being is primarily tied to their investment in their children and their roles as parents, and instead, suggest far stronger ramifications for feelings of being personally supported,” Luthar said. “Women’s adjustment status did co-vary with how they felt in their roles as mothers but also showed equivalent if not vastly stronger variation with the emotional support in their everyday lives.”

“These findings are extremely encouraging in showing the strong protective potential of close, authentic relationships in buffering women through the myriad challenges of motherhood."
— Suniya Luthar, Foundation Professor of psychology at ASU

What exactly does the notion of support mean in this study, and how is it different from what has been conventionally studied in psychology? Luthar explained that this is best captured by two simple phrases that one might instinctively see as relevant for children but not for highly accomplished, well-educated women:

“I feel seen and loved for the person I am at my core,” and “When I am deeply distressed, I feel comforted in the way I need it.”

Highlighting parallels between the needs of children and their mothers who tend to them, Luthar said, “just as unconditional acceptance is critical for children, so it is critical for mothers who must provide it. Mothers, like children, benefit greatly when they know they have reliable sources of comfort when in distress.”

Findings of this study also have direct implications for interventions.

“These findings are extremely encouraging in showing the strong protective potential of close, authentic relationships in buffering women through the myriad challenges of motherhood,” Luthar said. These findings have been harnessed at the core of a supportive intervention she is testing with physician mothers in a collaboration with the Mayo Clinic in Arizona.

Why physician mothers in particular? Because they are at risk for high levels of stress.

“We know well that motherhood is a difficult task for women in general,” Luthar said. “For these physician moms who are generally caregivers at home and at work — with the stakes often very high at work — there is no question that stress levels can get high. Hence the impetus to implement a three-month program of support groups, called Authentic Connections.”  

Recognizing the need for and potential value of such support groups, the Mayo Clinic has granted all physician mothers one hour of free time to attend the groups. Two groups were successfully conducted in the spring of 2015 and three more are underway. 

As the empirical findings from the “Who Mothers Mommy” paper lends strong support to the central conceptualization of the Authentic Connections groups, Luthar hopes to expand her program for mothers across different community and professional settings. “Over time,” she concludes, “it is my earnest wish that women can commonly come to prioritize, and to regularly receive themselves, the steadfast love and care that is uniquely associated with the term 'mothering.' ”

Associate Director , Media Relations & Strategic Communications


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October 28, 2015

ASU professor Nancy Cooke focuses on the psychology of technology, such as teamwork with drones

Editor's note: Professors Nancy Cooke and Tom Sugar will be recognized for their work on military matters at Thursday's football game against Oregon, as part of ASU's Salute to Service. Read a profile of Sugar's work on wearable robotics here.

Students who have graduated with a master’s in applied psychology from the Polytechnic School at Arizona State University have gone on to help defend the nation. They teach at military colleges and work with drone pilots.

And occasionally they call or email Nancy Cooke and thank her.

“Excellent.” It's how she described her feelings about the results of her work helping people use technology better. “That’s one of the best compliments we can get; that the program not only gave them a master’s degree, but also practical use in the real world.”

Cooke is a human systems engineer.

“It’s putting humans in the center of technology, designing the technology systems around them, rather than vice versa,” she said. “It has a major psychological impact.”

ASU professor Nancy Cooke

ASU professor
Nancy Cooke works
with students in the
Human Systems
Engineering program.

top photo:
Charlie Leight/ASU Now

Along with veterans and active service members, Cooke will be recognized for her work Thursday when ASU’s football team plays Oregon as part of the university’s Salute to Service celebration.

“The students who have graduated from here ... value their education,” Cooke said. “I have one student now working at Creech Air Force Base (in Nevada) with (drone) pilots … I think our master’s program prepares them well for what they’re going to do, either in the military or the commercial sector.”

Cooke is a professor and program chair of Human Systems Engineering at the Polytechnic School, one of the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering at ASU. As an undergrad at George Mason University in Virginia, she majored in foreign languages but found she enjoyed her introduction to psychology class.

“I also wanted to help people,” Cooke said. She did some peer counseling, but recognized going into clinical work was not for her. “I found it kind of boring,” she said.

She also liked her computer science classes. On a visit to career counseling, she discovered human factors, or engineering psychology as it was called then. It combined technology and computer science to help people use technology better.

“A lot of my work (with drones) has to do with teamwork, and how teams interface with a ground control station,” Cooke said. “I’ve been getting more interested in the psychosocial effects of the people who operate them.”

Human Systems Engineering lab
Students learn to program drone airplanes in the Cognitive Engineering Research on Team Tasks lab on the Polytechnic campus, run by professor Nancy Cooke. Charlie Leight/ASU Now


Cooke runs the Human Systems Engineering program on the Polytechnic campus, where students learn to design technology that works for humans.  Her Cognitive Engineering Research on Team Tasks lab investigates human and team performance in cybersecurity systems, unmanned aerial systems, intelligence analysis, emergency medicine and more — all with the aim of better understanding human behavior and how that intersects with technology.

Her work is funded primarily by the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Army Research Office.

A single drone mission requires almost 200 people working together, according to Creech Air Force Base. They fly seven days a week, 365 days a year, over countries like Afghanistan, Syria and Yemen.

“Many people are coming to the realization that we are fighting warfare in a completely different way,” Cooke said. “We’re fighting it remotely, and drones are a part of that. But in many ways there are people who are on the battlefield remotely, but sitting in Langley, Virginia, or the Pentagon or Creech Air Force Base in Nevada. They all remotely fly to the battlefield.

“The question is what kind of effects does that have? Many people have likened flying drones to a video game, but to the operators it’s anything but a video game. It’s very real.”

A pilot flying a manned plane into combat will drop ordnance and get out. They never get to watch their targets for days on end. Drone operators survey a village day in and day out. They begin to learn how many people live in a particular house, how many kids they have, how people are living in the village. They get to learn the patterns of life.

After they fire on a target, they stay over the area, assessing battle damage. A pilot flying a plane almost never sees the effects on the target.

“That can be all too real, in a place they know pretty well,” Cooke said. “It’s not at all like a video game.”

There is post-traumatic stress disorder, but without the support they’d get overseas in a theater of war.

“That’s why I really got into this line of work,” Cooke said. “I wanted to have an impact, to see the results of my research do something good. There’s a lot of problems that can be addressed in national defense, especially with so many incredible changes happening in robotics, remote operations, and censored data exploitation, and it feels good to do something that has an impact.”