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Young engineers envision an energy-independent Pakistan


April 10, 2017

Improving the energy grid in Pakistan is, without exception, the priority for a cohort of Pakistani graduate scholars studying engineering at Arizona State University this semester.

Participants in the U.S.–Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies In Energy program, the students recently demonstrated renewable energy concepts during ASU’s Night of the Open Door — an event during which Phoenix-area residents visit campus, meet faculty and students, and explore research projects.  Above: Hira Rehman (in pink) and Asma Shamim (in gold) demonstrate the power of photovoltaics with members of the Tempe community during Night of the Open Door. Photographer Erika Gronek/ASU Above: Hira Rehman (in pink) and Asma Shamim (in gold) demonstrate the power of photovoltaics with members of the Tempe community during Night of the Open Door. Participants in the U.S.–Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies In Energy program, the students recently demonstrated renewable energy concepts during ASU’s Night of the Open Door – an event during which Phoenix-area residents visit campus, meet faculty and students, and explore research projects. Photo by: Erika Gronek/ASU Download Full Image

Toy solar car races at the USPCAS-E exhibit attracted many young guests, giving the engineering students an opportunity to explain the importance of developing renewable sources of power. They also handed out LED light-up fans that, when they spin, spell out, “Renewable Energy: I’m a big fan.”

USPCAS-E is a partnership between ASU and two leading Pakistani universities: the National University of Science and Technology Islamabad and the University of Engineering and Technology in Peshawar. Funded through the U.S. Agency for International Development, the program is designed to find innovative solutions to Pakistan’s energy challenges. The group of students, comprised of 18 men and 11 women, represents the third cohort to spend a semester at ASU before returning to Pakistan to complete their master's degrees.

Ussama Khalid Barki (left) and Usman Salahuddin (right) explain how photovoltaics could change the energy situation in their home country at Night of the Open Door – Polytechnic. Photographer Erika Gronek/ASU

Ussama Khalid Barki (left) and Usman Salahuddin (right) explain how photovoltaics could change the energy situation in their home country at Night of the Open Door on the Polytechnic campus. Photo by Erika Gronek/ASU

Different backgrounds lead to diverse solutions to common goal

A NUST grad with a bachelor’s degree in telecommunications engineering, Anam Zahara from Southern Punjab is now working on a master’s degree in energy policy, with a focus on electrical engineering, through the program.

“We have many rolling blackouts in my area of the country,” she explained. Her vision is to integrate her telecommunications and electrical engineering education so she can “be a part of the process that improves Pakistan’s energy infrastructure.”

Education is a priority in Zahara’s family – both parents are teachers, two sisters are medical doctors and another has a master’s degree in agriculture. 

“One thing I’ve learned here is that time is money,” she said. “It’s important to be punctual for class.”

For Usman Salahuddin from Karachi, the decision to pursue an advanced degree in energy systems was born of frustration. With a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from NUST, Salahuddin found himself literally powerless on the job almost daily in the fertilizer industry.

“There was not enough gas to feed the furnace, so we’d have to shut down the factory,” he explained. “It taught me that we cannot rely on fossil fuels. We must develop renewable technologies that can be safely implemented for industry.” 

His attraction to the USPCAS-E program was heightened by the opportunity to focus on entrepreneurship. “This program not only makes us researchers, it also emphasizes becoming entrepreneurs,” Salahuddin said. “I believe small start-up companies will contribute significantly to solving my country’s energy problems.”

“Physics is about making theories,” said Ussama Khalid Barki, who holds a physics degree from NUST. “Engineering is about execution.” Noting that his country is struggling, Barki said it’s time for action, not theories.

Barki is now pursuing a master’s degree in energy systems engineering with an interest in developing technologies for rechargeable, solar powered batteries, but said he is inspired by energy researchers at ASU. He says he would like to continue conferring with ASU faculty once he returns home and work toward his doctorate.

“I have a new perspective,” he said. “Scientists explore space, but engineers build the telescopes.”

Farah Akram, who has a power electronics degree from NUST, did not let her poor sense of direction thwart her aspirations to pursue a master’s degree in electrical power engineering. “The ASU campus is so big that I got completely lost on my first day,” she said, explaining that her campus at NUST was small in comparison. “But everyone was so helpful, and eventually I found my way.”

The majority of Akram’s family is in business and she, who describes herself as “extremely organized,” is the only engineer. “Our family is passionate about education,” she said. “Engineering made the most sense for me.”

Farah Akram explains to members of the public what USAID’s mission is in Pakistan at Tempe Night of the Open Door. Photographer Erika Gronek/ASU

Farah Akram explains to members of the public what USAID’s mission is in Pakistan at Tempe Night of the Open Door. Photo by Erika Gronek/ASU

Cultural exchange

Unanimously, the students declared the Arizona Renaissance Festival their favorite cultural experience to date. They donned crowns along with other festival-goers and enjoyed the jousting knights, circus performers, musicians and the marketplace.

Actually, marketplaces of all sorts are of interest to the students. “We love shopping,” said Zahara, who says she’s particularly enjoyed Arizona Mills and Tempe Marketplace — both accessible via public transportation.

But more important than shopping and festivals are the opportunities to collaborate with other students.

“I feel so welcome — faculty has been extremely supportive,” Akram said. “This has been an unimaginable, new experience.”

“The cultural exchange has helped me learn how to socialize with people who are different,” says Barki. “One day on a trip via the light rail, a group of elderly ladies got on — so we stood up and gave them our seats. Everyone clapped. It was definitely a notable moment.”

Salahuddin noteed that the learning exchange extends well beyond American customs and culture. “We are not just meeting American students — there are students from five different countries working on one of my lab projects,” he said. “Exposure to these new, wide-ranging perspectives will be incorporated into the problem-solving processes we use when we return home.”

Terry Grant

Media Relations Officer, Media Relations and Strategic Communications

480-727-4058

ASU solar, sustainability scholar sojourns to Sweden


March 21, 2017

Though Arizona State University is committed to sustainability and renewable energy, weaning our civilization off fossil fuels and combating our changing climate is a much larger issue than the university can tackle on its own. Creating a truly sustainable world will take a global collaboration from researchers.

Electrical engineering Professor Meng Tao is one such researcher. He'll take his solar energy expertise to collaborate with Swedish researchers as the 2017 Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Alternative Energy Technology. As part of this $125,000 estimated package that includes a monthly allowance, housing assistance and airfare, Tao will work at the Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, for the 2017–2018 academic year. Portrait of Meng Tao Electrical engineering Professor Meng Tao has been awarded the 2017 Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Alternative Energy Technology, which will take him to Sweden's Chalmers University of Technology over the 2017–2018 academic year to study solar-powered charging for electric vehicles and solar module recycling. Photo courtesy of Meng Tao Download Full Image

“I hope to exchange ideas with my Swedish colleagues, to learn from one another, to stimulate new ideas and to facilitate long-term collaborations on some of the most pressing energy issues we are facing,” Tao said.

Tao is one of 45 Fulbright Distinguished Chairs awarded in 2017 to top scholars with exemplary teaching and publication records, many of whom are in the social sciences. The position is considered one of the most prestigious Fulbright Scholar Program appointments.

Douglas Cochran, who served as 2015 Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Science and Technology at the Australian Department of Defence’s Defence Science and Technology Group, said Tao’s appointment reflects favorably on ASU and the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering.

“The Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Sweden will provide Professor Tao with an excellent platform for building a new base of international collaborators, affecting not only his own scholarly and educational activities but potentially extending to enduring ties between his broader circle of ASU and U.S. colleagues and their counterparts in Europe,” said Cochran, a fellow faculty member in the School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, one of the six Fulton Schools.

Tao’s research during his Fulbright Distinguished Chair appointment focuses on two areas: charging electric vehicles with solar energy and making solar modules more sustainable through value-added recycling.

Since the electric grid is largely powered by fossil fuels, Tao said electric cars lose their environmental benefit if they’re charged through the grid, but solar may hold the answer to this problem.

“Charging electric vehicles by solar electricity makes environmental sense, but it is still expensive and unreliable,” he said. “That’s why we are developing a new solar photovoltaic system for charging electric vehicles that reduces the cost of solar electricity by 30 percent while eliminating its intermittency.”

With the potential for more solar photovoltaic systems in place for charging electric vehicles and other uses, Tao hopes to make paying for photovoltaic module recycling more attractive.

“There are valuable and bulky materials in silicon solar modules such as solar-grade silicon, silver, aluminum and glass,” Tao said. “When properly recovered, they can generate enough revenue to allow a profitable recycling business without any subsidies. We are developing a technology to do just that.”

Tao, who is also a senior sustainability scientist at ASU’s Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability, is looking forward to connecting the work done at ASU with that of Chalmers University of Technology.

“There is a wide range of research projects going on within the Fulton Schools and within ASU in the domain of energy, environment and sustainability,” Tao said. “I hope to be able to serve as a bridge and connect faculty and students of similar interests on two campuses for a broader collaboration across the Atlantic Ocean.”

For one week during Tao’s stay, one of his students will visit to help introduce the Fulton Schools’ work in these areas.

Sweden’s Chalmers University of Technology is an excellent fit for Tao’s Fulbright research proposal, especially the Swedish Electromobility Centre, a national Center of Excellence for hybrid and electric vehicle technology and charging infrastructure, and the Chalmers Competence Centre Recycling.

“The Swedish Electromobility Centre involves experts from all over Sweden and serves as a base for interaction between academia, industry and society. As an added bonus, major automaker Volvo is headquartered nearby,” he said. “The goal of the Chalmers Competence Centre Recycling is to be a network and catalyst for multidisciplinary R&D collaboration within the field of circular use of materials. Recycling is critical for a resource-efficient society.”

He hopes to spread knowledge of solar technology scalability and sustainability issues beyond Sweden to other European Union countries as well.

Beyond the engineering issues, he’s looking forward to learning about his new host country.

“I hope to learn a bit about the culture, history, geography and people of Sweden,” Tao said. “I hope to renew old relations, build new relations and make friends from all walks of life: college students, faculty members and average Joes in my neighborhood.”

He also finds it interesting to be a representative of the United States in a new country.

“As a first-generation immigrant, I was surprised when I received the notification,” he said. “I will represent, unofficially, the United States in a country that is neither my birth country nor my adoptive country. How fascinating this experience will be.”

First things first, Tao said, is getting ready for the Swedish climate.

“My wife and I are struggling to find suitable attire for the 2017 Nobel Award Ceremony and the long, cold winter in Sweden,” he says. “Phoenix is definitely not the best place for winter clothes.”

Monique Clement

Communications specialist, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering

480-727-1958

UNAM team joins ASU power ‘boot camp’


March 10, 2017

The term “microgrid” may not conjure excitement in the average person, but for organizations or people that stand to lose money, life, limb or living standards due to power outages, it does.

Microgrids can keep the lights on even after main power sources fail and they were the focus of a week-long “boot camp” held at Arizona State University’s Polytechnic campus this week for military veteran students and an academic trio from Mexico City.   people working with solar panel UNAM doctoral students Fernanda Alvarez and Jose Fuentes, center (left to right), examine part of a microgrid solar-powered system alongside student veterans at Arizona State University’s Polytechnic campus, Wednesday, March 8, 2017, during the Microgrid Boot Camp. Photo by Peter Zrioka/ASU Download Full Image

Two doctoral students and a professor from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) joined the event organized by the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering and part of the U.S. Navy’s NEPTUNE energy research project with ASU.  

“The microgrid boot camp is a 40-hour intensive, all-inclusive approach to microgrid education focusing on infrastructure basics,” said Nathan Johnson, assistant professor for the Fulton Schools at the Polytechnic campus and director of the Laboratory for Energy and Power Solutions. “This week and the involvement of UNAM is one example of how we’re taking our research and training to be a true global program. We’re on the early stages of developing global microgrid centers of excellence.”

NEPTUNE is an energy research project established with Department of Defense funding to break new ground in alternative energy while employing student veterans to assist and gain marketable skills. Veterans and other military-affiliated students are the primary audience but Johnson saw the benefit in having UNAM participate and continue the existing collaboration.

“For them to come up was more of a good opportunity,” Johnson said. “Given that UNAM and ASU have an exchange, this is part of their exchange to come work with us from an educational research standpoint. The work we’re doing with Cesár Angeles [UNAM lead professor], focuses on the problem of significant amount of solar on the grid. How do you effectively manage those with storage and advanced controls.”

Johnson said that part of the goal in partnering with UNAM is to develop energy simulations, hardware and then connecting them to “control the dial” and make sure it meets utilities’ safety and reliability requirements for one grid, and then for multiple ones connected together.  

The objective of using microgrids is to provide quality, reliable stand-alone energy during a loss of power from the main grid — i.e., the main electric power infrastructure. Microgrid systems, which can be powered by solar or other energy, are being installed in hospitals, military bases, college campuses and have become very common in data centers, Johnson said.  They can also be packaged and transported where needed during disaster response.

“So places that need to have 100 percent reliable power,” Johnson said. “They go down for seconds and it’s millions of dollars.  For many of the small businesses and household consumers, the focus is on renewable energy and reduced electric bills.”

The boot camp included interactive tours, lessons, lectures and talks from corporate and other ASU partners.  More importantly it enabled the exchange of perspectives and capabilities, a valuable aspect to the UNAM students.

“I’ve worked with photovoltaic systems, I’ve utilized these inverters, and utilized practically the same brand of panels, so it’s something that we know,” said UNAM doctoral electrical engineering student Jose Fuentes, about being familiar with some of the boot camp concepts and equipment. “What is interesting here is how easily the systems can be built and integrated quickly with the support needed to assemble everything and have it running within a semester or so.”

Another key aspect of the course is the focus on renewable energy, said Fernanda Alvarez, also a doctoral electrical engineering student at UNAM and a Colombia native. 

“There are many parts in Mexico, Colombia, here and other places where due to distance or location, there isn’t quality access to energy,” Alvarez said. “Systems like these will obviously make life easier and give everyone the rightful access to electricity and quality of life.”

The Micogrid Boot Camp is one of six NEPTUNE projects at ASU. The acronym stands for Naval Enterprise Partnership Teaming with Universities for National Excellence. Locally, the program is a collaboration between ASU LightWorks, the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering and the Pat Tillman Veterans Center. 

Jerry Gonzalez

Media Relations Officer, Media Relations and Strategic Communications

 
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ASU, Stanford researchers achieve record-breaking efficiency with tandem solar cell

February 20, 2017

Some pairs are better together than their individual counterparts: peanut butter and chocolate, warm weather and ice cream, and now, in the realm of photovoltaic technology, silicon and perovskite.

As existing solar-energy technologies near their theoretical efficiency limits, researchers are exploring new methods to improve performance — such as stacking two photovoltaic materials in a tandem cell. Collaboration between researchers at Arizona State University and Stanford University has birthed such a cell with record-breaking conversion efficiency — effectively finding the peanut butter to silicon’s chocolate.

The results of their work, published Feb. 17 in Nature Energy, outline the use of perovskite and silicon to create a tandem solar cell capable of converting sunlight to energy with an efficiency of 23.6 percent, just shy of the all-time silicon efficiency record.

“The best silicon solar cell alone has achieved 26.3 percent efficiency,” said Zachary Holman, an assistant professor of electrical engineering at the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering. “Now we’re gunning for 30 percent with these tandem cells, and I think we could be there within two years.”

Silicon solar cells are the backbone of a $30 billion-a-year industry, and this breakthrough shows that there’s room for significant improvement within such devices by finding partner materials to boost efficiency.

The high-performance tandem cell’s layers are each specially tuned to capture different wavelengths of light. The top layer, composed of a perovskite compound, was designed to excel at absorbing visible light. The cell’s silicon base is tuned to capture infrared light.

Perovskite, a cheap, easily manufacturable photovoltaic material, has emerged as a challenger to silicon’s dominance in the solar market. Since its introduction to solar technology in 2009, the efficiency of perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.8 percent to 22.1 percent in early 2016, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

The perovskite used in the tandem cell came courtesy of Stanford researchers — professor Michael McGehee and doctoral student Kevin Bush, who fabricated the compound and tested the materials.

The research team at ASU provided the silicon base and modeling to determine other material candidates for use in the tandem cell’s supporting layers.

Overcoming challenges with perovskites

Though low-cost and highly efficient, perovskites have been limited by poor stability, degrading at a much faster rate than silicon in hot and humid environments. Additionally, perovskite solar cells have suffered from parasitic absorption, in which light is absorbed by supporting layers in the cell that don’t generate electricity.

“We have improved the stability of the perovskite solar cells in two ways,” said McGehee, a materials science and engineering professor at Stanford’s College of Engineering. “First, we replaced an organic cation with cesium. Second, we protected the perovskite with an impermeable indium tin oxide layer that also functions as an electrode.”

Though McGehee’s compound achieves record stability, perovskites remain delicate materials, making it difficult to employ in tandem solar technology.

“In many solar cells, we put a layer on top that is both transparent and conductive,” said Holman, a faculty member in the School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering. “It's transparent so light can go through and conductive so we can take electrical charges off it.”

This top conductive layer is applied using a process called sputtering deposition, which historically has led to damaged perovskite cells. However, McGehee was able to apply a tin oxide layer with help from chemical engineering professor Stacey Bent and doctoral student Axel Palmstrom of Stanford. The pair developed a thin layer that protects the delicate perovskite from the deposition of the final conductive layer without contributing to parasitic absorption, further boosting the cell’s efficiency.

The deposition of the final conductive layer wasn’t the only engineering challenge posed by integrating perovskites and silicon.

“It was difficult to apply the perovskite itself without compromising the performance of the silicon cell,” said Zhengshan (Jason) Yu, an electrical engineering doctoral student at ASU.

Silicon wafers are placed in a potassium hydroxide solution during fabrication, which creates a rough, jagged surface. This texture, ideal for trapping light and generating more energy, works well for silicon, but perovskite prefers a smooth — and unfortunately reflective — surface for deposition.

Additionally, the perovskite layer of the tandem cell is less than a micron thick, opposed to the 250-micron-thick silicon layer. This means when the thin perovskite layer was deposited, it was applied unevenly, pooling in the rough silicon’s low points and failing to adhere to its peaks.

Yu developed a method to create a planar surface only on the front of the silicon solar cell using a removable, protective layer. This resulted in a smooth surface on one side of the cell, ideal for applying the perovskite, while leaving the backside rough, to trap the weakly absorbed near-infrared light in the silicon.

“With the incorporation of a silicon nanoparticle rear reflector, this infrared-tuned silicon cell becomes an excellent bottom cell for tandems," said Yu.  

Building on previous successes

The success of the tandem cell is built on existing achievements from both teams of researchers. In October 2016, McGehee and post-doctoral scholar Tomas Leijtens fabricated an all-perovskite cell capable of 20.3 percent efficiency. The high-performance cell was achieved in part by creating a perovskite with record stability, marking McGehee’s group as one of the first teams to devote research efforts to fabricating stable perovskite compounds.

Likewise, Holman has considerable experience working with silicon and tandem cells.

“We’ve tried to position our research group as the go-to group in the U.S. for silicon bottom cells for tandems,” said Holman, who has been pursuing additional avenues to create high-efficiency tandem solar cells.

In fact, Holman and Yu published a comment in Nature Energy in September 2016 outlining the projected efficiencies of different cell combinations in tandems.

“People often ask, ‘Given the fundamental laws of physics, what’s the best you can do?’” said Holman. “We’ve asked and answered a different, more useful question: Given two existing materials, if you could put them together, ideally, what would you get?”’

The publication is a sensible guide to designing a tandem solar cell, specifically with silicon as the bottom solar cell, according to Holman.

It calculates what the maximum efficiency would be if you could pair two existing solar cells in a tandem without any performance loss. The guide has proven useful in directing research efforts to pursue the best partner materials for silicon.

“We have eight projects with different universities and organizations, looking at different types of top cells that go on top of silicon,” said Holman. “So far out of all our projects, our perovskite/silicon tandem cell with Stanford is the leader.”

Pete Zrioka

Managing editor , Knowledge Enterprise

480-727-5631

Project energizes entrepreneurial aspirations for Pakistani scholars

Partnership between ASU, Pakistani universities aims to produce skilled graduates in the field of energy


December 23, 2016

A second cohort of Pakistani engineering scholars has completed their entrepreneurship course of study at Arizona State University as part of the USPCAS-E program. In addition to entrepreneurship, the students are also studying engineering and policy in an effort to improve their country’s energy prospects.

U.S.-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Energy is a U.S. Agency for International Development project focused on applied research relevant to Pakistan’s energy needs. The project, which is a partnership between Arizona State University and two leading Pakistani universities, aims to produce skilled graduates in the field of energy. Kenneth Mulligan, professor for the U.S.-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Energy, presents Pakistani exchange scholar Nafeesa Irshad with her certificate of completion for the entrepreneurship portion of the program. Photographer: Erika Gronek/ASU Kenneth Mulligan, professor for the U.S.-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Energy, presents Pakistani exchange scholar Nafeesa Irshad with her certificate of completion for the entrepreneurship portion of the program. Photo by Erika Gronek/ASU Download Full Image

ASU entrepreneurship professor Kenneth Mulligan said: “The intention of the program is to improve availability of clean, reliable power in Pakistan. Strategic innovation and entrepreneurship provides a pathway for widespread implementation of their innovative technical solutions. 

“Pakistan is subject to rolling blackouts that impede stability, progress and business. The problems faced in Pakistan are not easy problems, which is why coming up with solutions that reside outside the box are so critical,” said Mulligan, who has taught and mentored both cohorts so far.

“They get to use causative thinking, systems analysis and technical feasibility to solve complex technical problems in energy generation and distribution. However, this problem-solving approach and skillset is insufficient in the development of innovative and disruptive products and technologies.”

students attending energy project class at ASU

Scholars from the U.S.-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Energy learn about the entrepreneurial mindset at the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering Generator Labs. Photo by Erika Gronek/ASU

Mulligan thinks all of the scholars' final projects have market potential. All 27 of the visiting scholars, six of whom are women, took Mulligan’s class.

One project of particular interest was presented by Nafeesa Irshad. Irshad’s project involved developing a solar-powered drinking water purification system, which addresses both Pakistan’s need for renewable energy and clean water.

“In Pakistan, the unsafe drinking water is the main cause of children’s deaths and other health issues,” Irshad said.

“This system would be reliable to provide safe water to the people through its high temperature and UV C action,” Irshad said.

UV C, a type of ultraviolet light, kills microbes and cleans the water. “It would be [a] more energy-efficient system as compared to existing reverse osmosis technologies.”

Pakistani scholar holding certificate

Kenneth Mulligan, professor for the U.S.-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Energy, presents Pakistani exchange scholar Noaman Khan with his certificate of completion for the entrepreneurship portion of the program. Photo by Erika Gronek/ASU

Noaman Khan, another enterprising student in the class has the idea to pursue low-cost catalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

He wants to find new materials that can possibly replace platinum as a catalyst because the material is so cost-prohibitive. A more affordable, durable and reliable catalyst would reduce the cost of fuel cells, therefore opening up a market opportunity, according to Khan. Future applications could include the large-scale commercialization of the technology for automotive and other fuel cell applications.

Khan said of the program that it, “is not about publishing research papers but [about] solving Pakistan’s energy problem. It requires science and entrepreneurship to go side by side. I didn't realize it before this course. We should make discoveries that can create value.”

According to Mulligan, “Entrepreneurship gets them to think about implementation and commercial feasibility. It’s a way to connect their engineering skillset with an entrepreneurial mindset. Who has the problem? What is their true pain point? What solution solves both the technical feasibility and commercial feasibility? The benefits are enormous. It equips them to think in terms of real impact on their communities back in Pakistan.”

“My task is to instruct them in lean methodology — the core of tech entrepreneurship — and to inspire and mentor their abilities to solve problems through tech entrepreneurship and commercialization,” Mulligan added.

ASU is leading the U.S.-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Energy in a collaboration sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development and Pakistan’s Higher Education Commission.

An $18 million USAID grant supports the project with ASU as the hub for the energy component of the project in partnership with the National University of Science and Technology – Islamabad and the University of Engineering and Technology in Peshawar and Oregon State University.

The scholars who now see themselves as problem solvers and value creators hope to take their plans back home and turn those ideas into entrepreneurial ventures in Pakistan’s energy sector.

Erika Gronek

Communications Specialist, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering

Manufactured materials offer benefits to energy sector, climate change


December 23, 2016

Mechanical engineer Liping Wang imagines an energy sector enhanced by greater control over thermal radiation. To work toward this objective, he is designing and constructing a host of custom electromagnetic materials.

An assistant professor at Arizona State University, Wang's endeavor is supported by a Young Investigator Program research grant from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, totaling $360,000 over three years. The program received more than 230 proposals, awarding grants to only 25 percent of applicants. Liping Wang looks over metamaterials created in his Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group. Assistant professor Liping Wang (right) and Hassan Alshehri, a mechanical engineering doctoral student, research manufactured materials as part of Wang's Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group. Photo by Nora Skrodenis/ASU Download Full Image

Thermal radiation refers to the transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves between objects.

Improving thermal radiation and its transport boasts improvements in energy harvesting, as well as thermal management, imaging and sensing — all of which are essential in addressing the world’s urgent need for high-efficiency renewable energy sources and energy-saving materials.

But the quality of thermal radiation, and the energy it generates, is determined by the temperature and properties of the objects, known as emitters and receivers, at play.

Currently, in thermophotovoltaic systems (systems that convert thermal energy to power), efficiency is very low due to the performance of materials that make up the emitters and receivers. These systems commonly suffer from a loss of heat — known as waste heat — rather than using that heat to generate additional electricity.

All of this results in less efficient photovoltaics and is an obstacle in ramping up the usage of solar energy and waste heat, which can be recovered and used as an emission­-free and affordable energy resource.

A solution to the problem lies in designing emitters and receivers made of materials that are near-perfectly efficient in their absorption of sunlight — meaning materials that can selectively control thermal radiation and enhance radiative transport. By extension, this research could help create solar cells that produce more energy, more efficiently.

The game-changing nanoengineered materials that Wang is developing are nanowire-based metamaterials.

These manufactured metamaterials are electromagnetic structures that are deliberately engineered to offer a range of unique electromagnetic properties, which are much more difficult, if not impossible, to achieve in naturally occurring materials or composites, such as rare-earth oxides as wavelength-selective emitters.

“These metamaterials would provide much more flexibility and tunability in materials designed to achieve the best system performance,” said Wang, a faculty member in ASU's Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering.

Wang said a significant feature of his metamaterials is their ability to respond to both electrical and magnetic fields at optical frequencies. All lights or electromagnetic waves are made of co-existing electric and magnetic fields, which Wang likens to the “left and right hands of a person.”

“Most natural materials only interact with electrical fields of lights at optical frequencies; in other words, they behave non-magnetically,” said Wang.

During the thermal radiation process, Wang’s nanowire metamaterials can interact with both the electric and magnetic fields, which allows for improved control of light propagation, absorption and emission with “both hands” of the wave.

This control is termed “spectral selectivity,” and can lead to greater energy efficiency and power input by improving the conversion of thermal energy into electricity.

“In addition, the project fundamentally investigates the unexploited radiative thermal transfer process between these unique metamaterials separated by nanometer-scale vacuum gaps,” said Wang, which could further enhance the performance of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion or thermal management.

“We aim to engineer these novel materials for developing high-efficiency renewable energy sources, recuperating waste heat, facilitating thermal managements and mitigating climate change,” said Wang.

About 60 percent of the total energy that is produced in United States is wasted in the form of heat during production, transportation and storage.

“Recycling of such a huge amount of waste heat with highly efficient energy-conversion devices will undoubtedly reduce the amount of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission by up to 30 percent,” said Wang. This could alleviate the pressing demand for conventional energy sources and reduce carbon dioxide pollution.

In addition, by funding this research, the Air Force is likely interested in applications to improve optical cloaking and infrared detection.

In his efforts in the Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group, Wang engages a postdoctoral fellow, seven doctoral students including two visiting students from China, and three undergraduates as part of the Fulton Undergraduate Research Initiative.

Rose Gochnour Serago

Communications Program Coordinator, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering

Second cohort of Pakistani students arrives at ASU to brighten country, lives


October 18, 2016

A second group of graduate students from Pakistan recently arrived at Arizona State University to study energy engineering as part of a larger effort to boost development of solutions for Pakistan’s growing energy needs.

ASU is leading the U.S.-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Energy in a collaboration sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development and Pakistan’s Higher Education Commission. Sayfe Kiaei, director of U.S.-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Energy and a professor of electrical engineering in the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, welcomes the second cohort of Pakistani exchange students to ASU for the fall semester Sayfe Kiaei, director of U.S.-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Energy and a professor of electrical engineering in the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, welcomes the second cohort of Pakistani exchange students to ASU for the fall semester. Photographer: Erika Gronek/ASU Download Full Image

An $18 million grant supports the project — the largest ASU has ever received from USAID.

ASU is coordinating the graduate student exchange program in conjunction with two leading Pakistani engineering universities in an effort to train students to be change agents in helping both countries improve their energy systems.

Support for USPCAS-E is part of $127 million investment by USAID to improve Pakistan’s agriculture and food security as well as access to water and energy.

ASU is the hub for the energy component of the project in partnership with the National University of Science and Technology – Islamabad and the University of Engineering and Technology in Peshawar.

Sayfe Kiaei, director of USPCAS-E and a professor of electrical engineering in the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering believes that ASU is important to the program’s goals because, “The center is a link between ASU’s researchers and international development funding agencies as well as implementers who are working in developing countries worldwide.”

The partnership will further the long history of U.S.-Pakistani relations through the interaction of people, government, industry and academia in order improve energy stability in Pakistan.

Technology and policy

Technology and policy research are key to creating sustainable energy systems that will help enhance Pakistan’s economic potential.

The USPCAS-E program supports Pakistan’s economic development by strengthening the universities involved and by encouraging applied research.

Project topics range from research on battery technologies, photovoltaics and fuel cells to energy policy and energy-efficient buildings.

The range of skills that the exchange students acquire in these areas will help Pakistan meet its energy challenges, while equipping students to succeed in their future engineering careers.

“The students, who are very shy in the beginning, adapt to our laboratory working culture quickly,” said engineering professor Arunachala Kannan, the USPCAS-E technical lead for fuel cell and battery research. “They develop skills in communication, technical and social aspects during their stay working in the multicultural melting pot.”

Addressing the roots of Pakistan’s energy crisis

Pakistan is currently experiencing rolling power-system blackouts that can last up to 16 hours a day.

“Pakistan’s energy system is in crisis” said Clark Miller, director of the Energy Policy Lab at ASU. “To address that crisis requires a new commitment to energy policy, innovation and leadership.”

USPCAS-E is working to prepare young energy leaders to tackle that challenge.

“All of the students in the USPCAS-E programs, in Pakistan and at ASU, are receiving basic training in energy policy to ensure that they can contribute effectively as engineers to the energy policy process,” Miller said. “We are also providing specialized training in energy policy and the social dynamics of energy transitions to a small group of USPCAS-E faculty and students through semester-long programs here at ASU.”

Non-renewable resources like diesel fuel and coal are often imported by Pakistan, while hydroelectric and solar power remain underutilized as research, innovation and implementation in those areas continues to lag in the country. The USPCAS-E project aims to reverse that trend with the help of students in the exchange program.

The human component

Technology and policy are not the only key points of the USPCAS-E initiative. Cultural exchange, soft skills, networking within the industry and bringing disadvantaged students and women to the forefront of the energy field are all important components.

Saqib Sattar, who was a part of the first cohort of Pakistani students to begin studies at ASU in early 2016, spent a great deal of time in the Photovoltaic Reliability Lab. He has some advice for the recent cohort of students.

“Being an exchange student doing research at ASU means that you will be exposed to number of different [types of] equipment in the lab that will help you in learning many new things as well as getting hands-on experience,” Sattar said. “Also you will get the opportunity to meet with people from various cultures and will get to know about them and their culture.”

“So my advice to the current exchange students at ASU is to realize that this is a great opportunity for them not only to develop their technical skills but also soft skills, which are very necessary to be successful in your field, so they should make full use of this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity.”

Hafiz Malik, a student in the new cohorts said he is “loving this tapestry of cultures” at ASU and is looking forward to heeding Sattar’s advice.

The new cohort includes more than twice as many female students compared to previous group of graduate students, bringing the total up to five women.

The group also includes one visiting female faculty member, Rabia Liaquat, who said the total student exchange experience benefits both countries and students economically and culturally, and enhances the professional development of faculty and students alike.

Through the networking opportunities the program provides, Liaquat said, “ASU can help us to interact with other universities for the future, and can connect us with university fellows in our field.”

Andrew Sarracino, the USPCAS-E international visits coordinator, helps to acclimatize the students to life in the United States. He said the female students “are paving the path for more young women in Pakistan so that they are empowered to help their country overcome its energy challenges.”

Graduate exchange student Nafeesa Irshad said there are “very few females in Pakistan in the energy field. We are going to take the lead.”

Irshad said of her experience at ASU thus far that “people are very supportive and helpful.”

Future cohorts of exchange students will arrive at ASU each semester through 2019 to help bolster the exchange of culture and research between the United States and Pakistan.

Erika Gronek

Communications Specialist, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering

 
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ASU moves up ranks of 'Cool Schools'

ASU named a Cool School by Sierra Club for campus sustainability.
September 6, 2016

Sierra Club honors ASU for campus sustainability with No. 6 spot in its 2016 report, up from No. 11 in 2015

It's easy to be green — if you're a Sun Devil.

Arizona State University’s sustainability efforts have earned it a top 10 ranking in Sierra magazine’s 10th annual “Cool Schools” ranking of America’s greenest colleges and universities, released today.

ASU came in at No. 6, moving up five spots from its 2015 ranking.

More than 200 schools participated in Sierra’s extensive survey about sustainability practices on their campus. Using an updated, customized scoring system, Sierra’s researchers ranked each university based on its demonstrated commitment to upholding high environmental standards. 

Sustainability efforts aren’t just about the university’s operations, said Mick Dalrymple, director of ASU’s University Sustainability Practices — it’s about changing habits and mind-sets.

“Universities are about opening people’s minds,” Dalrymple said. “If we can get students, staff and faculty to see new opportunities for improving how we treat the environment and each other on campus, we can help them take those innovations out into the world to improve their lives, careers, neighborhoods and society.”

ASU scored high in several categories, including bike facilities, organic gardens, undergraduate programs, student outreach and move-in/out waste reduction. 

Other Arizona universities also made the list: Northern Arizona University was ranked 52nd, and the University of Arizona came in at No. 162. The full rankings can be found at www.sierraclub.org/coolschools.

Read on to learn more about what ASU is doing to help the environment.

Solar panels

ASU has 88 solar energy installations across four campuses and the ASU Research Park, creating more than 24 megawatts of power. In addition to providing power for the university, the solar panels also provide shaded parking, extend the life of roofs that have shade, and act as a living lab for academics and research and sustainability initiatives.

Bike valets

ASU provides free, secure and convenient bike valet services in three locations around the Tempe campus. The stations accommodate up to 200 bicycles and provide supervised bicycle parking on a first-come, first-served basis.

Recycling

As part of its Zero Waste initiative, ASU supports Blue Bin commingled recycling on all campuses and has services to recycle specialty items. In 2015 the university launched the Blue Bag recycling program to capture traditionally hard-to-recycle items such as batteries and wrappers. More than 500 Blue Bags have been placed around Tempe campus.

Campus harvest

The Tempe campus landscape is a diverse collection of plants from around the world including citrus, olive, pecan, peach and many other harvestable trees and shrubs. Last year, more than 400 volunteers harvested 3,600 pounds of dates on campus for sale, and 5 tons of ASU’s Seville oranges were also harvested for juice at campus dining locations.

Sustainable dining

Sun Devil Dining strives to make the path from field to fork as sustainable as possible through programs such as Engrained Cafe. This restaurant on the Tempe campus is committed to environmentally friendly practices such as using locally grown food, energy-efficient equipment and sustainable building materials.

LEED buildings

Since July 2006, ASU has completed 27 certified LEED projects, comprising 46 buildings including the second floor of the Memorial Union. In the past year, the Sun Devil Fitness Complex on the Tempe campus and College Avenue Commons were the latest to receive certification: platinum and gold, respectively.

Campus shuttles

Last spring, this free intercampus service received a makeover that included a new shuttle fleet of double-decker buses, enhanced Wi-Fi, and charging ports and electrical outlets at every seat. The shuttles help support ASU’s commitment to sustainable transportation, which also includes biking, public transit and carpooling.

Composting

This year, ASU launched the first compost station for the Memorial Union on the Tempe campus. Students, faculty and staff may place food scraps and paper food-service items in a green compost bin.

Polytechnic Community Garden


The Community Garden at the Polytechnic campus provides space and programming for students, faculty, staff and K-12 students to grow and enjoy fresh products.

“We are delighted that our actions align with the Sierra Club’s sustainability priorities,” said Nichol Luoma, ASU sustainability operations officer and associate vice president, University Business Services. “As a New American University, ASU is committed to leading by example and continuously innovates to achieve our sustainability goals.”

More Earth-friendly facts about ASU’s sustainability efforts:

  • Renewable-energy use at ASU during fiscal year 2016 avoided approximately 21,700 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, roughly equal to the annual emissions of 4,500 passenger vehicles.
  • ASU’s Campus Metabolism is an interactive web tool that displays real-time energy use on four campuses and ASU Research Park.
  • During Ditch the Dumpster — when residence hall residents are encouraged to donate or recycle unwanted items instead of throwing them away during move-out — ASU students diverted more than 105,000 pounds of food, clothing, furniture and other reusable items.
  • Zero Waste efforts resulted in a FY 2016 diversion rate of 35.6 percent. Total food waste diverted from landfill: 414.14 tons.
  • ASU placed first in the Pac-12 for diversion rate in the RecycleMania Game Day Basketball Challenge with a diversion rate of 92.4 percent.
  • ASU partners with the non-profit Borderlands to make rescued fresh produce available at low cost to ASU students, faculty and staff and the broader community.
  • A Rescued Food Feast event diverted nearly 600 pounds of food from the landfill.
  • The university offers a range of sustainability-related degrees and is home to the nation’s first School of Sustainability, which celebrated its 10th anniversary this year. In addition, the School of Sustainability Residential Community provides a living and learning opportunity for students to “walk the talk.”

“For more than 10 years, ASU has demonstrated its fundamental commitment to sustainability,” said Christopher Boone, dean and professor of the School of Sustainability. “We are very pleased to be recognized by the Sierra Club for all of our hard work.”

 
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Catching some rays at ASU solar camp

High schoolers flock to ASU for the hottest summer camp in town.
Students build solar panels at unique ASU summer camp.
July 28, 2016

High schoolers get hands-on experience with the science behind solar

Scorching, squinting, sweating and learning — welcome to Arizona State University’s Solar Energy Camp, the hottest camp at the hottest university in the hottest state.

On a sizzling July morning down at the university’s Polytechnic campus, six students are setting up solar panels and attaching various measuring devices to them.

Joo Seung, 16, came from San Diego for the weeklong camp. He has been interested in renewable-energy sources since he was in elementary school.

“This year I was reaching out to find out where I could learn about solar energy,” he said.

Everything he found in California was geared toward college students. Seung did some of his own research on the internet but ended up getting lost in overly technical texts. He said he much preferred learning in class, with material that wasn’t aimed at someone with a doctorate in electrical engineering, which is where he said he wants to end up.

“I’ve learned a lot,” Seung said. “A lot of the resources (professor Arunachala Kannan) gave us were very informing.”

Kannan, a professor in the Engineering and Manufacturing Engineering Program in the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, provided each student with a kit including a battery, inverter, solar panel and other components. When assembled, it is a standalone system.

“The purpose is to give them basic electrical parameters,” Kannan said. He keeps lectures to a half-hour —  it’s a camp, not a class — and then they get to work.

“I think they’re excited about doing hands-on,” he said.

They learn how solar modules work, power performance, safety and which parameters control performance. One aspect of the latter? “Once you get above 100 degrees, performance is not good,” Kannan said.

Panels need to be washed off. Dust hampers their performance. The most famous example of this is when the Curiosity rover stopped working on Mars because its solar panels were dusty. Scientists expected this, and they predicted that was it for the rover. However, wind blew the dust off, and Curiosity is still going strong.

The students set up panels in the sun on a sidewalk, measuring their angle and direction. The panels have sundials on them. At the end of camp, the students are responsible for a report including notes, pictures and measurements. It’s meant to cement what they’ve learned into their heads.

“When they submit a report, many things become clarified,” Kannan said.

Michael Geddis, 16, attends the American Leadership Academy high school in Queen Creek. The school has a STEM program that requires attending an outside enrichment program. They provide students with a list of possibilities, including Poly’s Solar Energy Camp.

“I really like the labs because I’m learning a lot,” said Geddis. “I like to learn.”

Top photo: Carlos Nunez, 15, of Tempe, and other members of Solar Energy Camp adjust the angle of their panels on the Polytechnic campus on July 13. Photo by Charlie Leight/ASU Now

Scott Seckel

Reporter , ASU Now

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ASU researchers aim to pull fuels out of thin air


July 21, 2016

Nonrenewable fossil fuels give liquid fuels a bad name.

But not all liquid fuels are fossil fuels, and fuels don’t have to be dirty. The Center for Negative Carbon Emissions’ novel air-capture technology features a plastic resin that captures carbon dioxide when dry, and releases it when moist. The process has promising new applications in creating carbon-neutral liquid fuels, a greene The Center for Negative Carbon Emissions’ novel air-capture technology features a plastic resin that captures carbon dioxide when dry, and releases it when moist. The process has promising new applications in creating carbon-neutral liquid fuels, a greener alternative to fossil fuels. Photo by: Jessica Hochreiter/ASU Download Full Image

Fuels are considered dirty when they put new carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which causes pollution and the buildup of environmentally detrimental greenhouse gases. But what if rather than using fuels that add carbon dioxide, we could create fuels that recycle carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?

Researchers at Arizona State University are exploring the idea of creating fuels that do just that: carbon-neutral liquid fuels. Think of them as fuels created out of thin air.

The endeavor builds on the advances being made at ASU’s Center for Negative Carbon Emissions, which is developing a technology that collects carbon dioxide from the atmosphere using an air-capture technique that literally scrubs it from the air and then captures it so it can be reused at an affordable cost — a carbon dioxide recycling program.

This effort moves toward closing the carbon cycle, which means making sure no new carbon dioxide ends up in the atmosphere — essential for ensuring that concentrations don’t surpass unsafe limits for life on Earth.

In addition to the environmental benefits of removing carbon dioxide, excessive amounts of it can be turned into carbon-neutral liquid fuels, making it a renewable energy source.

“The answer to our search for a sustainable future is likely to involve a combination of technologies — and fuels from air will play an important role.”

— Arvind Ramachandran, ASU environmental engineering doctoral student

How exactly can fuel be pulled from thin air? Like any magic act, it is surprisingly simple.  

First, the center's researchers generate hydrogen by using a renewable, carbon-free electricity source (such as wind energy or solar power) to split water through a process called electrolysis.

Second, this gaseous hydrogen is combined with the carbon dioxide captured from air.

What does this mixture produce? Methanol, an alcohol fuel similar to ethanol. Voila! Fuel from air.

Like ethanol, methanol can be blended with gasoline or further processed into gasoline.

“When this methanol or synthetic gasoline is burned, it releases carbon dioxide and water back into the atmosphere where it can then be recaptured and reused to make more fuel,” said Steve Atkins, a Center for Negative Carbon Emissions senior engineer who specializes in this technology.

Methanol can also be converted into plastics that would be carbon negative, or into other fuels such as diesel and jet fuel.

“If we can make air-capture affordable then we have a carbon-neutral feedstock to make liquid fuels and take advantage of abundant renewable energy,” said Christophe Jospe, who was CNCE’s chief strategist from September 2014 until June of this year and is now founding The Carbon A List to highlight the most promising approaches to capturing and recycling carbon dioxide.

The big impacts of this technology are threefold.

First, it can help society to go carbon neutral. Unlike fossil fuels, carbon-neutral liquid fuels do not add greenhouse gases or generate a net carbon footprint. Limiting, and preferably reducing, our carbon footprint is essential for sustaining life.

Second, this technology is attractive because carbon-neutral liquid fuels can be used within our current industrial infrastructure.

“If we can’t use the internal combustion engines in our cars, then we have wasted assets,” Jospe said. This renewable alternative can work within society’s current infrastructure and energy system and be more sustainable.

Third, it addresses some of the limitations of other renewable energy methods. Solar and wind power experience intermittent drops in energy production. Much like traditional liquid fuels, carbon-neutral liquid fuels can be stored long-term and used in accordance with demand.

“During periods of intermittency in renewable energy, you could utilize liquid, carbon-neutral synthetic fuels to provide electrical power,” said Atkins — though he acknowledges the round-trip efficiency (electricity to fuels and back to electricity) would be low.

lab equipment

In this mobile methanol synthesis trailer senior engineer Steve Atkins produces hydrogen and mixes it with carbon dioxide, part of the process of creating a carbon-neutral liquid fuel. Photo courtesy of Steve Atkins

Related to our transportation fleet, Jospe said, “We don’t need to move toward a totally electrified transportation fleet. We can use fuels, but the fuels need to become carbon neutral.”

Flying an airplane with an electric battery may not be a realistic option due to the reality of energy density (how much energy is contained within a unit).

“Batteries can’t pack as much electrons into the same amount of space,” Jospe said.

That means options like jet fuel are beneficial because they are lighter weight, and can power travel across further distances. Maybe it’s easiest to say that they offer users more bang for their buck.

But nonrenewable fuels, like jet fuel, also come with nasty consequences for the environment.

Promisingly, the energy density of carbon-neutral liquid fuels can be more advantageous than current batteries. They are also better than fossil fuels because they avoid adding new carbon to the atmosphere.

Arvind Ramachandran, a first-year environmental engineering doctoral student, is advancing research in converting captured carbon dioxide into fuels and chemicals under the supervision of Klaus Lackner, the director of CNCE and a professor in ASU’s Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering.

“I think it is very clear that we have to figure out a way to become carbon negative or at least carbon neutral,” said Ramachandran, who earned his master’s degree in chemical engineering from Columbia University.

“Making sure that our mobile sources of carbon dioxide emissions, such as cars and airplanes, are running on carbon-neutral fuels represents a powerful way of achieving carbon neutrality,” he said.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s ARPA-E REFUEL program (short for Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy’s Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-dense Liquids) is currently offering funding opportunities to encourage innovations in liquid fuel technology that promise significant impacts.

Jospe thinks the air-capture technique fits the need by supporting the synthesis of fuels made from the air. CNCE is currently applying for ARPA-E funding to advance this effort.

Getting fuels from air is not the only option researchers at ASU are exploring. Others are advancing the production of biofuels from algae as part of a multi-university project supported by a recently awarded $2 million grant from the Bioenergy Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy.

Additional niche applications of the air-capture technology would make it possible to use it to carbonate beverages, create high-value chemicals and sequester carbon in products such as graphene, plastics and carbon fiber.

These and many other products and systems require the use of carbon dioxide.

“Let’s get that carbon from air so we know it’s carbon neutral, rather than a source that doesn’t help us close the carbon cycle,” Jospe said.

CNCE researchers will promote and build on these ideas further when ASU hosts the Fuels From Air Conference on Sept. 28-30. The conference will bring researchers from around the world to discuss closing the carbon cycle, techniques in taking fuels from air and different ways to turn carbon dioxide into fuels.

Ramachandran, a budding specialist in this new and exciting field, said it best: “The answer to our search for a sustainable future is likely to involve a combination of technologies — and fuels from air will play an important role.”

Rose Gochnour Serago

Communications Program Coordinator, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering

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