The hunt for the lunar core


January 7, 2011

The Moon, Earth’s closest neighbor, has long been studied to help us better understand our own planet. Of particular interest is the lunar interior, which could hold clues to its ancient origins. In an attempt to extract information on the very deep interior of the Moon, a team of NASA-led researchers applied new technology to old data. Apollo seismic data was reanalyzed using modern methodologies and detected what many scientists have predicted: the Moon has a core.

According to the team’s findings, published Jan. 6 in the online edition of Science, the Moon possesses an iron-rich core with a solid inner ball nearly 150 miles in radius, and a 55-mile thick outer fluid shell. Download Full Image

“The Moon’s deepest interior, especially whether or not it has a core, has been a blind spot for seismologists,” says Ed Garnero, a professor at the School of Earth and Space Exploration in ASU’s College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. “The seismic data from the old Apollo missions were too noisy to image the Moon with any confidence. Other types of information have inferred the presence of a lunar core, but the details on its size and composition were not well constrained.”

Sensitive seismographs scattered across Earth make studying our planet’s interior possible. After earthquakes these instruments record waves that travel through the interior of the planet, which help to determine the structure and composition of Earth’s layers. Just as geoscientists study earthquakes to learn about the structure of Earth, seismic waves of “moonquakes” (seismic events on the Moon) can be analyzed to probe the lunar interior.

When Garnero and his graduate student Peiying (Patty) Lin heard about research being done to hunt for the core of the Moon by lead author Renee Weber at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, they suggested that array processing might be an effective approach, a method where seismic recordings are added together in a special way and studied in concert. The multiple recordings processed together allow researchers to extract very faint signals. The depth of layers that reflect seismic energy can be identified, ultimately signifying the composition and state of matter at varying depths.

“Array processing methods can enhance faint, hard-to-detect seismic signals by adding seismograms together. If seismic wave energy goes down and bounces off of some deep interface at a particular depth, like the Moon’s core-mantle boundary, then that signal “echo” should be present in all the recordings, even if below the background noise level. But when we add the signals together, that core reflection amplitude becomes visible, which lets us map the deep Moon,” explains Lin, who is also one of the paper’s authors.

The team found the deepest interior of the moon to have considerable structural similarities with the Earth. Their work suggests that the lunar core contains a small percentage of light elements such as sulfur, similar to light elements in Earth’s core – sulfur, oxygen and others.

“There are a lot of exciting things happening with the Moon, like Professor Mark Robinson’s LRO mission producing hi-res photos of amazing phenomena. However, just as with Earth, there is much we don’t know about the lunar interior, and that information is key to deciphering the origin and evolution of the Moon, including the very early Earth,” explains Garnero.

Nikki Cassis

marketing and communications director, School of Earth and Space Exploration

Scientists help aid early detection of breast cancer


January 7, 2011

In the war on cancer, perhaps there is nothing more powerful in a physician’s arsenal than early detection. Despite recent advances in early detection and treatment, breast cancer remains a common and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. Approximately one in 10 women will get breast cancer in their lifetime and more than half of women with late-stage cancer (II and III) have no cure or effective therapeutic available.



Using a new, powerful method for rapidly screening molecules associated with disease, proteomics expert Joshua LaBaer and colleagues from ASU's Biodesign Institute have identified a broad panel of 28 early predictors, or biomarkers, that may one day aid in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.



“We do not have any available blood markers for breast cancer,” said LaBaer, a Virginia G. Piper Chair in Personalized Medicine at ASU who directs the Center for Personalized Diagnostics at the Biodesign Institute. “Our hope is to combine a new type of blood test with mammography screening to aid in the early detection of breast cancer.”



The findings represent the first demonstration of a custom protein array technology deployed to find biomarkers in breast cancer patients before they were clinically diagnosed for cancer. These biomarkers were specific for breast cancer patients and not in healthy women or women with a benign form of breast disease.



Their findings appear in the American Chemistry Society’s Journal of Proteome Research.

 

The LaBaer lab is involved in a quest for biomarkers that detect early disease and distinguish benign breast disease from invasive cancers to guide patient and doctor decisions. LaBaer is an expert in a burgeoning field that strives to understand the global role of protein function, called proteomics, that plays a powerful and relevant role in the discovery of biomarkers – unique molecular fingerprints of disease – that is part of a large scale Biodesign Institute effort to identify biosignatures that can provide early warning for those at risk of major illnesses, including cancer and diabetes.



To develop new biomarkers for the early detection of breast cancer, LaBaer’s team explored the intersection between cancer and our bodies’ primary defense mechanism against invaders, the immune system. Previous studies have shown that proteins produced by cancers can trigger the body to produce antibodies that are not found in healthy individuals.  These “autoantibodies” can be measured in the blood and used to betray the presence of a hidden cancer.   



The challenge faced by researchers is to determine which antibodies among millions are specific for breast cancer. To accomplish this, the team used a novel protein microarray technology, called Nucleic Acid Protein Programmable Array (NAPPA), which was invented in LaBaer’s Harvard Institute of Proteomics lab in 2004.



Protein microarrays display thousands of different candidate proteins lined up in rows and columns on a single microscopic slide. A tiny drop of blood was added to the microarray to look for proteins that are recognized by the antibodies from the cancer patients but not from the healthy women.



To narrow down the list of candidates, several successive screens were performed that compared the immune responses in women with early-stage breast cancer, those without cancer, and those with benign abnormalities in their breasts. The patients and controls also were matched for age and location.



Three phases of screens were performed, using increasingly rigorous statistical selection standards that narrowed down the number of potential biomarkers candidates from 5,000 to 761, which showed any measurable difference between healthy and disease populations, to 119, which showed a clear statistical difference. Finally, these were then tested in a blinded study (where the researchers did not know which samples were from breast cancer patients and which ones were from controls) to find the final 28 biomarkers. The group not only looked at how each individual biomarker fared during the screening, but also how the entire panel of biomarkers worked together.



This was the first time the group has utilized NAPPA technology to identify the parts of the immune response that are activated during cancer, and the first serum biomarker panel developed for the discrimination of benign breast disease from invasive breast cancers. The group was pleased to confirm that many of the candidate biomarkers have also been described as important in breast cancer tumor biology and pathology.

 

“We were surprised at how hard it is to find biomarkers like this,” LaBaer said. “The changes are subtle and rare, which is a real warning shot to those investigating breast cancer research. The key is a team approach that combines many different types of scientific expertise to tackle the problem.”

 

In addition, LaBaer’s team has a broad interest in identifying autoantibody biomarkers in patients that can be readily used for the detection of many other cancers, such as ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer as well as autoimmune diseases such as diabetes and arthritis.



Samples used in these analyses were obtained from Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC), the Duke University Medical Center (DUMC), and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) with support from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Early Detection Research Network and the NCI Breast SPORE program. LaBaer’s research is supported by grants from the NCI branch of the National Institutes of Health and a $35 million philanthropic gift from the Virginia G. Piper Charitable Trust.

Media contact:

Joe Caspermeyer

Biodesign Institute

joseph.caspermeyer">mailto:joseph.caspermeyer@asu.edu">joseph.caspermeyer@asu.edu Download Full Image

Britt Lewis

Interim Communications Director, ASU Library