ASU-led conference underscores the changing nature of war


February 24, 2015

While war will continue to be brutal and include battles, air strikes and attacks of various types, the future of war will be defined by innovations in labs, cyberspace and technological and scientific advances – as well as broad shifts in global culture, climate change and competition over resources.

That was the consensus of a collection of leading experts who gathered to discuss the changing nature of war and conflict. Download Full Image

New America and Arizona State University hosted the first annual Future of War Conference Feb. 24-25 in Washington, D.C. to explore the theme “How Is Warfare Changing?” The event brought together a diverse, interdisciplinary panel of thought leaders to discuss the profound social, political, economic and cultural implications of war and conflicts.

“We are at a moment of reflection in the United States after nearly a decade and a half of sustained national conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan,” said Daniel Rothenberg, professor at ASU and a fellow at New America who co-organized the two-day conference. “There is a broad-based interest in discussing conflict and war within our society, and we felt it best to bring everybody together to talk about the various aspects of emerging technologies and strategies, the ‘forever war’ paradigm and how we can better understand warfare by reflecting on history.”

The conference was the first high-profile event for the Future of War project, an interdisciplinary partnership between New America, a Washington, D.C. think-tank, and ASU, one of the nation’s largest and innovative public research universities. Topics included autonomous weapons, laws of war, synthetic biology, cyber security and attacks, technological and scientific advantages and the emotional impact of killing other human beings.

As society and technology is ever-evolving, laws are slow to change regarding war because Congress and the President rarely talk, said Yale Law School’s Harold Koh, who spoke of the authorization of future use of military force.

“Congress often uses a gimmick to get the President to talk, which means we need a process for updating these laws,” Koh said. “We are fighting laws that are based on old statutes and are being stretched.”

While the laws for authorizing war are old and outdated, the advances in synthetic biology are moving at a fast clip and have chilling repercussions if not controlled, said ASU President Michael M. Crow, who led a panel titled "How Will the Digital Biology Revolution Transform Conflict?" with ASU professors Gaymon Bennett and Gary Merchant.

“Biological weapons could wipe out an entire food and water supply, reproduction abilities, change an entire gene pool and have an outcome that could affect the entire species,” Crow said. He added that scientists won’t engage in certain activities because of the possibilities and suggested a moral basis by governments to safeguard science.

War correspondent Phil Zabriskie and author of “The Kill Switch,” said there are some things you can’t safeguard, such as the emotional impact on soldiers when they are forced to kill in combat.

“I wrote this book because I came to feel that killing was often left out of the conversation. It’s been overlooked, not discussed and swept away,” said Zabriskie, who covered both Iraq and Afghanistan for Time and other magazines. “If we’re not talking about killing, we don’t know how detrimental it can be.”

Advances in technology will hopefully cut the rate of death in both soldiers and civilians, said Arati Prabhakar, director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, which was established to prevent strategic surprise from negatively impacting U.S. national security and to create strategic surprise for U.S. adversaries by maintaining the technological superiority of America’s military.

“When I first joined the agency, it was during the Cold War, when we had just one monolithic threat,” Prabhakar said. “Now we no longer have just one threat but many. Chronic threats like ISIS and Ebola will be part of the landscape ... we will need sophisticated high-end security to remain successful.”

It was a sentiment echoed by Suzanne Spaulding, under secretary for the National Protection and Programs Directorate at the Department of Homeland Security, who said the recent cyber attack on Sony is one of millions taking place every week.

“The line between war and peace is a thin one. We are under attack every day and we are not where we need to be in our cyber hygiene,” Spaulding said. "The only way to protect yourself against a determined adversary in a cyber space attack is to throw away your computer."

Other panelists included U.S. Navy Adm. Michelle Howard, CNN anchor Wolf Blitzer, U.S. Army Gen. Raymond Odierno and U.S. Senator John McCain.

Reporter , ASU Now

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ASU Art Museum to document Tempe with history's slowest photograph


February 25, 2015

Boasting two interstate freeways and one of Arizona's largest shopping malls, the City of Tempe has been selected to represent the evolution of world civilization over the next thousand years.

On March 6, the ASU Art Museum will install a camera designed by experimental philosopher Jonathon Keats to take a millennium-long photograph of the evolving Tempe skyline. The museum will unveil the photograph in a month-long exhibition scheduled for spring 3015. Jonathon Keats Download Full Image

“The first people to see this picture will be children who haven't yet been conceived,” said Keats. “They're impacted by every choice we make, but they're powerless. If they can't influence our decisions, at least they can bear witness.”

To document the next thousand years of Tempe civilization, Keats has conceived a new approach to photography based on the traditional pinhole camera.

“My photographic time capsule is extremely simple, since anything complicated is liable to break,” said Keats.

The solid metal camera uses oil paint in place of ordinary film. Pierced through a plate of 24-karat gold, a minuscule pinhole focuses light on the colored pigment, such that the color fades most where the light is brightest, very slowly creating a unique positive image of the scene in front of the camera.

“The photograph not only shows the skyline, but also records how it develops over time,” Keats explained. “For instance, old houses torn down after a couple centuries will show up only faintly, as if they were ghosts haunting the skyscrapers that replace them.”

According to ASU Art Museum curator Garth Johnson, the millennium camera will be installed on the museum's third-level terrace, where museum visitors will be able to see both the city view and the photographic apparatus.

“The ASU Art Museum is well-positioned to bear witness to the Tempe skyline as it evolves and changes,” said Johnson. “The span involved in Keats’ vision is at once humbling and empowering for a forward-thinking institution like ours.”

At noon on March 6, Johnson will discuss these themes in conversation with Keats at a public lecture to be held on the museum’s third-floor terrace. The camera unveiling is presented in conjunction with ASU’s Center for Science and the Imagination and is free and open to the public.

Immediately following the museum event, Keats will lead a hands-on workshop on building deep time cameras as part of ASU's annual Emerge festival, set to take place from 3 p.m. to midnight, March 6, at the university's SkySong Innovation Center in Scottsdale. The event is free and open to the public, with registration requested through asuemerge2015.eventbrite.com.

As part of Keats’ workshop at Emerge, the public is invited to build a pinhole camera with a 100-year exposure time to hide somewhere in the Phoenix area, invisibly monitoring changes in the urban landscape between now and 2115.

“I don't want to be the only deep time photographer on the planet,” said Keats. “Millennial photography needs to be ubiquitous if it's to have an all-encompassing impact on us,” he said, hinting that Tempe is just the first of many cities soon to have millennium cameras.

For more information on the ASU Art Musuem and to read Keats' bio, visit: asuartmuseum.asu.edu/news/press_release.php?id=1096.

Juno Schaser

Event coordinator, Biodesign Institute

480-965-0014