ASU center kicks off inaugural lectures, symposium series on evolutionary health


January 16, 2014

The ASU Center for Evolution, Medicine & Public Health will host several events to celebrate the center's launch.

Directed by Randolph Nesse, foundation professor and founding director, the center’s mission is to establish evolutionary biology as a basic science for medicine and public health worldwide. Research is at its core, but the center also will have major commitments to education, outreach and developing similar programs elsewhere. Download Full Image

The new center will coordinate with the ASU Center for Evolutionary Medicine and Bioinformatics in the Biodesign Institute, directed by Regents' Professor Sudhir Kumar, by augmenting existing strengths in phylogenetics with new faculty whose research uses basic evolutionary principles to understand problems such as antibiotic resistance, cancer, autoimmune disease, aging and behavioral disorders.

Schedule of events (open to the public)
*Speaker abstracts below

"Galen, hagfish and the bench-to-bedside gap in endothelial biomedicine: a noisy affair" 
2-3:15 p.m. Jan. 17, LSE 104 (refreshments served beforehand)
Willaim Aird, professor of medicine, Harvard Medical School and director, Center for Vascular Biology Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Symposium on Evolution, Medicine & Public Health: The Great Opportunity
1-6:30 p.m., Jan. 21, Memorial Union 241

• 1 p.m., "Hormones in the wild: Physiological adaptations for human social relationships," Mark Flinn, professor and chair of anthropology, University of Missouri

• 2:30 p.m., "The evolution of drug resistance and the curious orthodoxy of aggressive chemotherapy," Andrew Read, alumni professor in the biological sciences, professor of entomology and director of the Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics

• 4 p.m. "Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine worldwide: What can ASU do?" Panel discussion with the four visitors and ASU faculty, led by Randolph Nesse

• 5:30 p.m. Open reception for all who share an interest in evolution and medicine

"Where Darwin meets Freud: Evolutionary biology and the genetics of autism, psychosis, and the social brain" 
noon-1 p.m., Jan. 22, ISTB-1 401
Bernard Crespi, professor of biology, Simon Fraser University

To join the listserv for CEMPH events, send a note to CEMPH@asu.edu. To view the speakers' bios and papers, click here.

*Speaker abstracts:

"Galen, hagfish and the bench-to-bedside gap in endothelial biomedicine: a noisy affair," William Aird
The vascular endothelium, which forms the inner lining of the blood vascular system, is an under-appreciated organ system that has enormous, though largely untapped diagnostic and therapeutic potential. There exists a wide bench-to-bedside gap in endothelial biomedicine. Future advances in vascular medicine are contingent upon narrowing the gap and translating knowledge to improve patient care. A first step is to recognize the origins of the existing chasm. One reason relates to medicine’s present-day preoccupation with large arteries, at the expense of the vast expanses of microscopic small blood vessels or capillaries. While large arteries are vulnerable to developing atherosclerosis, microvessels hold important clues about the mechanisms of virtually every other disease in humans. I will discuss how our focus on large vessels is rooted in Ancient Greek medicine, and was further sharpened by William Harvey’s discovery of the circulation. In the 1900s, the compartmentalization of medicine into organ-specific disciplines further hampered our ability to approach the vasculature as an integrated organ. Another reason for the lack of progress in knowledge translation is our focus on cell culture. I will discuss how traditional in vitro studies have shaped our view of the endothelial cell as a homogeneous entity and precluded analysis of its emergent properties. I will emphasize the remarkable adaptability of the intact endothelium, review proximate mechanisms of endothelial cell heterogeneity and introduce the novel role of multistability and biological noise in mediating phenotypic differences between endothelial cells. Finally, I will address evolutionary mechanisms of endothelial heterogeneity. I will present data from our studies in hagfish, the oldest extant vertebrate, showing that phenotypic heterogeneity evolved as a core feature of the endothelium. In conclusion, I will argue that future breakthroughs in endothelial biomedicine will require an understanding of the dynamical regulatory network of the endothelium at multiple scales.

"Hormones in the wild: Physiological adaptations for human social relationships," Mark Flinn
We humans are highly sensitive to our social environments. Our brains have special abilities such as empathy and social foresight that allow us to understand each other’s feelings and communicate in ways that are unique among all living organisms. Our bodies use internal chemical messengers – hormones and neurotransmitters – to help guide responses to our social worlds. Understanding this chemical language is important for many research questions in anthropology. For the past 25 years I have conducted a field study of child stress and family environment in a rural community in Dominica. The primary objective is to document hormonal responses of children to everyday interactions with their parents and other care providers, concomitant with longitudinal assessment of developmental and health outcomes. Results indicate that difficult family environments and traumatic social events are associated with temporal elevations of cortisol and morbidity risk. The long-term effects of traumatic early experiences on cortisol profiles are complex and indicate domain-specific effects, with normal recovery from physical stressors, but some heightened response to negative-affect social challenges.

"The evolution of drug resistance and the curious orthodoxy of aggressive chemotherapy," Andrew Read
Drug-resistance is a major public health problem. Conventional wisdom on resistance management is to use aggressive chemotherapy to kill pathogens as rapidly as possible so as to prevent them from acquiring resistance. This is the reason why physicians frequently exhort patients to finish drug courses even after they no longer feel sick. I will argue that that aggressive chemotherapy will not be the best way to retard resistance evolution in some – perhaps many – circumstances.
 
"Where Darwin meets Freud: Evolutionary Biology and genetics of autism, psychosis, and the social brain," Bernard Crespi
Mental disorders are usually conceptualized in terms of pathology and disease. I describe a new  perspective, based in evolutionary biology and genetics, that  the forms and risks of human psychiatric conditions have evolved. Under this rubric, such  conditions represent  hypo-development, or  hyper-development, of   human­ evolved adaptations and tradeoffs. I present evidence from genetics, endocrinology, neuroscience, psychology and psychiatry that autism spectrum and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder  and  depression)  represent  diametric (opposite) conditions with  regard to  human social and  non-social cognition. This evolutionary perspective has  direct implications for  the  study, understanding and treatment of psychiatric conditions.

Sharon Keeler

Achievements earn engineering professors IEEE Fellow status


January 17, 2014

Outstanding accomplishments in engineering have earned Arizona State University professors Nathan Newman and Martin Reisslein honored status in one of the world’s most prominent professional organizations.

They are among colleagues selected as new Fellows of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). No more than one-tenth of one percent of the 400,000 IEEE members from 160 countries is chosen each year as Fellows. Reisslein and Newman Download Full Image

The IEEE is a leading authority on a wide variety of areas ranging from aerospace systems, computers and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, electric power and consumer electronics.

Newman is on the faculty of the School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy. Reisslein is on the faculty of the School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering. Both schools are part of ASU's Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering.

Newman is being recognized by the IEEE specifically for “contributions to the development and production of novel thin film materials and devices.”

Reisslein is recognized for “contributions to the design and performance evaluation of metropolitan networks and multimedia networking mechanisms.”

Newman’s research focuses on the growth, characterization and modeling of new solid-state materials for microwave, photonic and high-speed electronics uses.

His expertise includes semiconductors, superconductor and dielectric materials, thin-film materials synthesis and materials characterization.

Newman is the Lawrence Professor of Solid State Sciences at ASU and has been director of the LeRoy Eyring Center for Solid State Science at the university.

His worked has earned him 12 patents, and his more than 200 technical articles have been cited more than 5,000 times by fellow researchers. He won a Van Duzer Prize, awarded annually to the best research paper published by the IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity journal. He is also an editor for the journal.

Newman was elected as a Fellow of the American Physical Society in 2006, and chairs the U.S. Committee for Superconducting Electronics.

Before joining the ASU faculty, he was an associate professor at Northwestern University in Illinois, a member of technical staff at the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and at Stanford University and Conductus, Inc.

After earning a bachelor’s degree in biomedical and electrical engineering at the University of Southern California, he earned a master’s degree and a doctoral degree in electrical engineering from Stanford University.

Reisslein has made significant contributions to the development and performance evaluation of network architectures and protocols for reliable high-speed Internet access. His research team developed and evaluated a series of metropolitan area networks that exploit advanced photonic communication components for highly efficient transport of Internet traffic.

He has identified the fundamental performance limits of metropolitan area networks, which are often the cause of Internet traffic bottlenecks. He has led the development of strategies for managing the medium-access control and scheduling in optical-access networks that connect individual households and businesses to metropolitan area networks, as well as the integration of access networks with metropolitan area networks.

He is credited for advancing research on multimedia networking mechanisms, making advances in the caching of streaming video in content distribution networks and to collaborative streaming protocols. These video transport and distribution mechanisms help ensure continuous video playback at the receiver.

He developed the first collaborative streaming protocol to base scheduling decisions on the pre-buffered video in the individual receivers for both wireline and wireless networks. The research has provided insights into the performance characteristics of the pre-buffering of streaming video, which is now a common technique for video streaming over the Internet.

Reisslein is associate editor-in-chief of the IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, the top-ranked journal of the IEEE Communications Society. He is associate editor for the Computer Networks journal and the IEEE Transactions on Education journal. He earned a doctoral degree in systems engineering from the University of Pennsylvania.

Joe Kullman

Science writer, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering

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