ASU professor’s book explores the impact of Native American scholar Vine Deloria Jr.

November 25, 2019

Each November, National Native American Heritage Month honors the United States’ original inhabitants, celebrating the accomplishments of American Indians and shedding light on figures sometimes left out of national conversations. 

The designation was federally established in 1994, but the Native American fight for recognition began decades before. In a new book released this year, Arizona State University scholar David Martínez explores the Red Power movement of the late 1960s, a youth-led effort focused on self-determination and tribal sovereignty that set the stage for contemporary actions like the Dakota Access Pipeline protests.  David Martinez's book about Vine Deloria Jr. was released by University of Nebraska Press August 2019. David Martinez's book about Vine Deloria Jr. was released by University of Nebraska Press August 2019. Download Full Image

Martínez’s book examines the breadth of that movement through the eyes of one of its founding architects: Standing Rock Sioux lawyer, author and professor Vine Deloria Jr.

Published this August by University of Nebraska Press, Martínez’s “Life of the Indigenous Mind: Vine Deloria Jr. and the Birth of the Red Power Movement” examines how Deloria’s writings spoke to Native American communities and sparked a movement that spread across the country. 

Deloria’s 1969 book, “Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto,” laid the foundation for the Red Power movement’s self-determination ideals. He went on to become a prominent tribal scholar and wrote more than 20 books on the subject. Though he died in 2005, Martínez said his legacy lives on in today’s Native American sovereignty movements and the classrooms focused on them. 

“Deloria was probably the most important intellectual of the late 20th century,” said Martinez, a member of the Gila River Indian Community and an associate professor in The College of Liberal Arts and SciencesAmerican Indian Studies program. “Many would argue his writing single-handedly invented the modern curriculum of American Indian studies, particularly in regard to tribal self-determination in all of its political, legal, cultural and social manifestations."

Martinez answered a few questions about the book and what Deloria means to American Indian scholars today.

Question: How has Deloria’s writing helped shape contemporary American Indian studies programs in the U.S. today?

Answer: The objective of American Indian studies today is about acknowledging the historic policies that have been dogging us for generations, and to understand what our nationhood means in terms of our identity as indigenous peoples and our relationship with the federal system. Deloria helped initiate that discussion within academia.

Federal Indian law and policy has defined Indian affairs from the beginning of colonization to today. That includes treaties, U.S. Supreme Court decisions and the establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the reservation system. When Deloria came along in the mid-1960s, the federal government wanted to get rid of its trust responsibilities to tribes, essentially eliminating the promises made to us over the years in terms of compensation for the land taken. 

That created a huge uproar among tribes from coast to coast and stimulated a youth movement that became the Red Power movement. It was comprehensive resistance from Indians who were sick of being treated as second-class citizens. Deloria’s priority and that of the movement was about getting America to recognize that Indian tribes were, in fact, sovereign nations protected by federal Indian law.  

Q: How do you think he provided a foundation for Native American activists and academics active today?

A: Actually, Deloria didn't really identify himself as an activist, but as an Indian nationalist. Nationalism can sometimes go a militaristic route or include things like acts of public disobedience. But it can also involve the intellectual work of writing about history, theories and analyses, and working within the system to bring change. An example was the creation of the National Congress of American Indians, which tried to influence Congress and get legislative fixes for various problems on reservations. Deloria became the group’s executive director and went to Congress a number of times for hearings on bills that stood to impact tribes. He also had a law degree, so it was not uncommon for him to be called as an expert witness during those hearings as well. 

That said, I think a better term for Deloria would be an engaged intellectual. He is part of a lengthy tradition in the American Indian community of people who use their education and experience to advocate on behalf of tribes. He used writing and speaking to engage people and take on issues from an intellectual sphere.

Q: Are there any modern-day examples of the kind of work Deloria was doing back in the 1960s?

A: There’s good work produced today, but I don’t think any of us would be so brazen as to compare ourselves to Deloria. He emerged during a period when indigenous nations generally felt under threat by the federal government’s trust termination proposal. And there really weren’t a lot of Native writers getting published at the time.

Most of the books coming out on Indians back then were history books about famous chiefs of the 19th century, or anthologies of their famous speeches. People were talking about contemporary Indian affairs, but hardly anyone was writing about them. Then Deloria released “Custer Died for Your Sins.” Nowadays there's a community of scholars in this discipline. Deloria was mostly working on his own.

Q: What do you think students can take away from Deloria’s work?

A: For my Native students in particular, the thing that’s most impressive is Deloria’s sense of humor. There is a tradition among American Indians of handling oppression through humor, belittling your oppressor and satirizing your oppressors. And it’s that humorous vein that makes issues accessible. 

Deloria would do that in his books. And students, especially those who grew up on the reservation, pick up on it right away. They regard Deloria as the real deal because a lot of his anecdotes come straight out of his own experience, either as an Indian leader or having grown up on the reservation himself. Native students connect to his stories because they’re familiar. He sounds like their uncle or their grandfather. They trust him as a result, and they're more willing to take his ideas seriously.

Q: What was it like for you to learn about Deloria as a college student yourself? 

A: I was in community college in Southern California when I first started reading Deloria, but it wasn’t in a classroom. That school was good, but not the kind of place focusing on American Indian history or writers. I was connected to the Indian community in Los Angeles County and here in Arizona, so Deloria’s name came up for me that way. I remember buying my copy of “Custer Died for Your Sins” at a bookstore in Claremont, California, and immediately becoming enthralled. Reading his work motivated and inspired me for the same reasons it does for my students now. I picked up on his humor and he validated my experiences as a Native person. That encouraged me to continue my education in the hopes I could create things like he did, some day.  

Q: What do you hope your book adds to the conversation about Deloria and Native American issues at large? 

A: I think it's time we remind ourselves of Deloria’s work and legacy because revisiting that era is a way to understand the journey we've traveled over the last 50 years as a community, movement and discipline.

I think it’s also important to build upon his work and recognize what’s missing. Deloria was good at articulating the inherent rights of tribes as sovereign nations, for example, but he didn't take that notion into areas like gender relations. The Second Wave Feminist movement was going on during the same time he first appeared, but you don't see any of that in his writing. As scholars today, we can expand by looking at Native women leaders of the time, and we can ask ourselves how gender relations play into the larger conversation about tribal self-determination.

Deloria was also very aware of growing environmental crises of his time. There are a lot of environmental justice issues that are still impacting tribes today, the Dakota Access Pipeline being the most well-known example of that. We can capitalize on his work and use it to rethink environmental justice so that it is more amenable to tribal sovereignty and tribal rights.

Writer, The College of Liberal Arts and Sciences


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Rural Arizonans share views with urban citizens but face unique challenges

Tourism, housing, poor roads among rural challenges described at ASU conference.
November 26, 2019

Morrison Institute conference addresses affordable housing, lack of resources

People who live in rural Arizona share many of the same concerns as their urban counterparts, but they also face unique challenges and wish for a bigger share of support from the state, according to speakers at the 10th State of Our State conference held by the Morrison Institute of Public Policy at Arizona State University.

“Rural Arizona Now” was the theme of Monday’s conference, which covered a broad range of issues. Experts described dealing with heavy tourism, complicated relationships with the federal government and a lack of resources for affordable housing and road repairs. Here are the highlights:

'Arizonans Speak'

The Morrison Institute released a poll on Monday called “Arizonans Speak,” a web-based survey of 975 residents balanced for age, gender, ethnicity and location. The respondents, who included both registered voters and nonvoters, answered questions on a variety of topics.

Water quality ranked as the most important policy issue, with 80% of respondents agreeing that it is important, and less than one-fourth of respondents believing that Arizona has plenty of water to meet its needs in the foreseeable future.

For rural residents, water quality tied with health insurance as the most important issue, according to Melissa Kovacs, associate director for research at the Morrison Institute.

“Rural residents are more likely to agree that they use water more efficiently than nonrurals, and that they’re worse off financially than the previous year,” she said.

“They feel less strongly than urban residents that trade with Mexico is an important policy issue.”

Other survey findings:

• 82% of all respondents support requiring background checks for all gun purchases.

• Over half believe the laws covering the sale of guns should be stricter, while just under 10% believe they should be less strict.

• 69% of Republicans agree with the statement, “I support deporting all undocumented immigrants,” while 21% of Democrats do.

• 77% of Democrats agree with the statement, “I believe climate change is a threat to Arizona’s water supply,” while 39% of Republicans do.

• 53% of Republicans agree that “I have confidence in Arizona state government when it comes to handling Arizona’s problems,” while 38% of Democrats do.

A rural identity

Kovacs noted that 18% of the survey respondents indicated that they live in a rural area, but according to their zip codes, only about 5% actually do, based on U.S. Census indicators.

Jonathan Koppell, dean of the Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions, said that the disconnect isn’t surprising.

“There’s something there when a disproportionate number of people identify themselves as being rural. I would put it to you that rural Arizona is important economically and socially, but it’s important psychologically as well,” he said.

“And the collapse of rural life in America, broader than just in Arizona, has a disproportionate effect on the psychological health of America and the confidence we feel as a country because so much of our identity is bound up in the imagery and lifestyle that we associate with rural America.

“We still think of a cowboy on a horse as a quintessential American image.”

Koppell said that the Watts College, which houses the Morrison Institute, has been working to address problems that affect rural communities, including higher risks of addiction and suicide.

“We’re spending time focused on the most pressing issues, including homelessness, which is of increasing concern not only in urban Arizona, but in rural Arizona, where our forests and parks are often homes of last resort for people who have no other place to live,” he said.

He described the college’s One Square Mile initiative as a “systems integrator,” connecting people and programs in Phoenix’s Maryvale community.

“I predict that one day, one of our One Square Miles will be in rural Arizona,” he said.

Eliminating educational inequity

ASU President Michael Crow showed several charts that described the lower rates of high school graduation, percentage of population with a bachelor’s degree and personal income in Arizona’s rural counties compared with the national average. 

“The number of jobs available in the U.S. economy for a person without a high school diploma has decreased 25% in the last 10 years and will decrease 50% more in the next 10 years,” he said.

“I don’t care whether you think that’s fair or good or bad. Educational attainment is the single most important predictor of social mobility.”

ASU is working to close the educational gap through its ASU Prep Digital online school, which provides math and science coursework in remote schools that can’t attract teachers, and through ASU Online, which offers more than 200 degree programs.

“In a place like Arizona, as massive as it is, what we’re trying to do is construct an institution that’s capable of being present everywhere as needed,” Crow said.

“Let’s talk about education not as a place or an institution, but as a force available to anyone, anywhere.”

Rural challenges

Several experts discussed the challenges that are unique to rural areas of the state, which urban residents often don’t even realize.

Affordable housing: Jane Russell Winiecki, past chairwoman of the Yavapai-Apache Nation, said the proliferation of short-term rentals like Airbnb has severely affected the housing market. “The state of Arizona has taken it upon themselves to not let each of the towns and cities make their own decisions for short-term rentals. It’s big government trying to tell all the communities of Arizona that if short-term rentals want to come in, they can do that. It’s devastating to the Verde Valley.”

Matt Ryan, of the Coconino County board of supervisors, agreed that short-term rentals are hurting the housing market. “The last apartment complex in Page was just turned over to short-term rentals. We should be moderate in our approach and say, ‘If you have more than three rentals, you’re operating a business’ and there should be tax equity associated with that.”

Mila Besich, mayor of Superior, said the Resolution Copper project, a proposed mine, could bring many jobs to the area but Superior might not get the full benefits. “Four-hundred-fifty households are expected because of this project, and we don’t have enough housing.”

Broadband: Traci Morris, director of the American Indian Policy Institute at ASU, noted that of the 975 survey respondents, only 44 were Native American. “You know why that is? (The survey) was online. We’re talking about connectivity,” she said. The institute recently released a report showing that people who live on reservations have unequal access to the internet, with 18% having no access and 31% having spotty access. “Telecommunications underpins everything, access to technology, phone, Wi-Fi, the components of what makes life possible in America, whether we like it or not.”

Tourism: Ryan described the impact of heavy tourism in northern Arizona. “We’re being loved to death. There are so many people coming to our region that the impact is tremendous. We have a metro level of visitors but a smaller tax base associated with it.”  He said that tourists will neatly stack up their garbage on the side of U.S. Forest Service roads, expecting it to be picked up. “There’s no trash service out there,” he said.

Poor roads: State Rep. Arlando Teller, who is Navajo and represents District 7, the entire northeastern part of Arizona, said: “I am glad I’m hearing these conversations but what I don’t hear is next steps — how we’re going to do what we need to do about the deteriorating bus routes in tribal Arizona. I was home last week where it snowed, and a school bus had driven off the road. In urban Arizona, you don’t have the issue of ‘How do I get to work when the road is muddy?’”

Natural resources: Jason Whiting, supervisor of Navajo County, said that wildfire is increasingly a threat to his community. “Our forests are very unhealthy right now and the fuel load is not where it’s meant to be,” he said. He also said that the complicated web of federal, state and private land makes it hard to extract valuable minerals from the area.

Lack of social services

In conjunction with State of Our State, the Morrison Institute also released a new research project called “Interactive Maps: Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Resources in Arizona.” The online tool draws from the institute’s earlier research project on child neglect in Arizona. The maps show areas where risk factors are high for issues that affect child well-being, such as domestic violence and substance abuse. Overlaid on that are dots that show where services are available.

The maps show a stark picture with many gaps. The Tohono O'odham Nation in southern Arizona is at the highest risk for domestic violence and has only one service provider. Mohave County in the northwest corner of the state is also at high risk, with only two providers.

Research has shown the effectiveness of home-visiting services, in which a nurse or social worker meets with new parents to provide support and knowledge to create a safe home for children. The map shows huge areas with few or no providers.

There are only two substance-abuse treatment providers for the Navajo Nation, and only four in the entire swath of northern Arizona.

Top image: Andrea Whitsett, director of the Morrison Institute, kicks off the 10th State of Our State conference on Monday in Phoenix. Photo by Charlie Leight/ASU Now 

Mary Beth Faller

Reporter , ASU Now