Husband, father of two and ASU Online student proves you can earn your degree at any age


May 3, 2019

Editor’s note: This is part of a series of profiles for spring 2019 commencement.

Kevin Keenan began his college career in 1997 pursuing his passion for music and sports radio. As it often does, life stepped in between Keenan and his college degree, and he put his plans on hold to focus on working full time. Download Full Image

A few years after Keenan began working full time, his sister, who was also in college, was diagnosed with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. Keenan recalls that it was her fierce determination to graduate, despite her diagnosis, that later motivated him to go back to school and complete his degree.

After many setbacks, Keenan knew he wanted to give his family of four a better life. He and his wife discussed Keenan’s desire to go back to school and agreed that Arizona State University would be the best choice to pursue a degree, the online Bachelor of Science in communication. As a dedicated father and husband, Keenan is grateful for the flexibility ASU Online provided so he didn’t have to miss out on some of his favorite dad activities, including his son’s sporting events.

Question: What was your “aha” moment, when you realized you wanted to study the field you majored in?

Answer: My “aha” moment came a long time ago. I started attending college back in 1997, and I wanted to be on-air talent for a radio station. I’ve always loved music and sports radio. In 2000, I dropped out of college while working full time.

A few years passed and my younger sister was diagnosed with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. She ended up beating it, finished college and got her degree which has, and always will be, a huge motivating factor for me to finish my degree. I work for a family owned industrial supply company and they provide 100% college tuition. Put those two together and I have the makings of me finally getting my degree.

I started to do my research about what schools to apply to. Having two young, active boys puts a damper on things and missing home time, so I started looking at universities that offered the flexibility of obtaining a degree online. After all the research, I ultimately chose ASU.

Q: What’s something you learned while at ASU — in the classroom or otherwise — that surprised you, that changed your perspective?

A: I learned at ASU that no matter where you are in life, you can always go back to school! It has not been easy by any means. Being a 41-year-old husband and dad with a full-time job has enough stressful moments. But the way the classes are structured at ASU is fantastic because you still have the flexibility to work on assignments and study, but there is also the structure of the classes and keeping you on track. The best of both worlds!

Q: Which professor taught you the most important lesson while at ASU?

A: The professors that taught me the most important lessons were Dr. Lauren Fletcher and Professor Brandon Ferderer. Both professors were nothing short of fantastic.

I took COM 207 a couple of years ago and didn’t understand any of the assignments and ended up having to drop the class. It was the lowest point of college for me. Last fall, I was about to embark on taking COM 207 again, so I emailed Professor Ferderer a few weeks before class started and kept in constant contact with him the entire seven and a half weeks which made me feel confident and prepared from beginning to end.

Q: What’s the best piece of advice you’d give to those still in school?

A: My best piece of advice is to never quit. I’m 41 and I’ll be walking the stage a day after my 42nd birthday. It just goes to show you’re never too old or too young to finish. Having a college degree is so important nowadays.  

Q: As an online student, what was your favorite spot to study or to just think about life?

A: My favorite spot to study was the kitchen table because living in the Midwest and having the weather that we have doesn’t offer me the flexibility to sit outside all the time!

Q: What are your plans after graduation?

A: I put a lot of pressure on myself to excel in my classes and now that my sons are both in sports, I can finally enjoy watching them play sports and not worry about homework I must finish. I will continue working at my current company where I have been for the past 13 years. It’s always nice to have that degree from Arizona State University in my back pocket though!

Q: If someone gave you $40 million to solve one problem on our planet, what would you tackle?

A: I would put that money toward helping our men and women that have served in the military. These people serve our country and deserve more than what they are getting as far as help and services when they make it home. To volunteer yourself to serve your country is one of the bravest things you could do.

Carrie Peterson

Media Relations Manager, EdPlus at Arizona State University

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ASU researchers add human ingenuity to automated security tool


May 3, 2019

The world’s top chess player isn’t a human or a computer, it’s a “centaur” — a hybrid chess-playing team composed of a human and a computer.

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is looking to apply the same human-computer collaborative approach to cybersecurity through its Computers and Humans Exploring Software Security (CHESS) program. Arizona State University Assistant Professors of computer science Yan Shoshitaishvili (left) and Ruoyu “Fish” Wang in the Laboratory of Security Engineering for Future Computing, or SEFCOM. ASU Assistant Professors of computer science Yan Shoshitaishvili (left) and Ruoyu “Fish” Wang in the Laboratory of Security Engineering for Future Computing, or SEFCOM. Shoshitaishvili, Wang and a multi-university team earned an $11.7 million DARPA award to develop a human-computer collaborative approach to cybersecurity. Their approach is called Cognitive Human Enhancements for Cyber Reasoning Systems. Photo by Erika Gronek/ASU Download Full Image

A team of researchers in the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering at Arizona State University is working with collaborators at the University of California, Santa Barbara; the University of Iowa; North Carolina State University; and EURECOM to make their move in this space. The team’s project is called CHECRS, or Cognitive Human Enhancements for Cyber Reasoning Systems.

The $11.7 million award supports the multi-university CHECRS team’s efforts to create a human-assisted autonomous tool for finding and analyzing software vulnerabilities that also learns from and incorporates human strengths of intuition and ingenuity. The ASU team, led by Ruoyu “Fish” Wang, an assistant professor of computer science and engineering in the Fulton Schools, received $6.6 million of the award funding.

Wang credits the School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering, one of the six Fulton Schools, and its strong focus on cybersecurity research, academic concentrations, publications and faculty hires as driving forces behind the work that won the DARPA award.

“This DARPA award, together with the Harnessing Autonomy for Countering Cyberadversary Systems [HACCS] award we received last year, support CIDSE’s development strategy,” Wang says. “They will also help make the Laboratory of Security Engineering for Future Computing [SEFCOM] one of the top security research labs in the country.”

Wang also attributes their success to the Global Security Initiative at ASU, which offered immense help in getting the DARPA award.

“Seriously, we wouldn’t have got this award without GSI’s assistance," Wang says. "Their extensive knowledge and experience on working with government agencies are crucial to securing awards like this.”

During a time when reports of nearly weekly security and data breaches occur due to software vulnerabilities — which are a natural part of coding — the success of this DARPA research program lies in the teams’ ability to build systems that will find and mitigate these costly mistakes before they can be exploited for nefarious purposes.

As in a game of checkers, defenseless pieces are inevitable, but the CHECRS team is developing a way for humans and computers to work together to identify vulnerabilities before black-hat hackers or other bad actors have the opportunity to make a play.

“It’s a lot of responsibility,” says Yan Shoshitaishvili, an assistant professor of computer science and engineering and co-principal investigator on the project. “It’s a big undertaking that the government is making, and we have a lot of responsibility to make it a success. I have no doubt we’ll be successful.”

Autonomous tools can do the job, but they’re novice players

During the 2016 DARPA Cyber Grand Challenge in Las Vegas, a packed crowd watched seven computers on a stage just sitting there, blinking. It was an exciting day.

The computers were autonomously fighting a cyber war against each other. They were executing the results of years of research by teams of computer scientists who had created autonomous cyber reasoning systems that could analyze software systems, find vulnerabilities, create proofs of vulnerabilities and fix them automatically — all without human interaction.

Wang and Shoshitaishvili, then both graduate students at the University of California, Santa Barbara, were on one of the seven finalist teams, Shellphish. Captained by Shoshitaishvili, Shellphish earned third place in the competition, but the team also left with the seed of an idea.

“Since then we’ve been thinking about the concept of human-assisted cyber autonomous systems,” Shoshitaishvili says. “We had the realization that if you have both an autonomous system and a principled way to reinject human intuition, which these machines lack, you can create something better than the sum of its parts.”

Human qualities make for the best of both worlds

It’s important for a cyber reasoning system to be able to function autonomously — it demonstrates that machines can do all of the work, if necessary. Also, computing power is cheap, can scale easily and work constantly. However, Shoshitaishvili likens these autonomous tools to 1990s chess-playing computers — able to win sometimes, but not with the frequency and skill of a chess-playing human champion like Garry Kasparov.

Unlike chess — a game with a well-defined set of rules that can be efficiently mastered by machines — software programs are a lot more complex.

“While modern automated tools run on computers that calculate billions of times faster than a human brain, human security analysts still find the majority of software vulnerabilities,” Wang says. “This is because the knowledge and intuition that humans possess outweigh the speed of calculation when facing problems with extreme complexity, for example, finding software vulnerabilities.”

Since humans are available to help with security analysis, we might as well work together.

Automated tools already exist to help expert security researchers and white-hat hackers (those working for good) detect vulnerabilities. But these tools are only useful to an elite few.

The CHECRS team wants to create an autonomous tool that can be used by a wider variety of human assistants. Software developers, quality assurance specialists and other non-security experts have human intuition and ingenuity that can meaningfully aid the automated tool.

When humans of varying skills and expertise are at work, or when the machine needs help connecting dots using intuition, the automated tool can delegate tasks it’s not good at to the humans while it switches over to other tasks computers are optimized to perform.

Not only do humans help in the moment, the automated tool will incorporate what it learns from human contributions to continuously improve upon itself — both in how it interacts with its human partners and in its own ability to accomplish tasks.

In achieving this ability to work together and learn from one another, the CHECRS team will meet the first two of the five DARPA CHESS program goals: pulling in human assistants to the autonomous cyber reasoning system (with efforts led by Shoshitaishvili) and getting machines to understand software in ways humans do (led by Wang).

“As we observe instances of humans helping the machine, can we learn from that using machine learning or by observing and trying to recreate [human capabilities] algorithmically and reproduce it in the machine itself?” Shoshitaishvili asks. “Our expectation is yes.”

Working toward a more secure future

In additional steps of the DARPA CHESS program, other research teams will evaluate whether the human-computer teams are working effectively by competing against the system to detect vulnerabilities.

Professional security analysts will form teams, called control teams, for these weeklong competitions. At this point, it remains to be seen what types of vulnerabilities the human-computer teams will be good at finding and fixing. However, CHECRS won’t feel lonely: Some technologies underlying CHECRS, such as the binary analysis platform called angr, could also be employed by control teams.

If the team is successful and vulnerabilities can be automatically detected and people can be alerted to them in useful ways, or if they can even be fixed automatically, cybersecurity breaches and politically motivated hacks could become a thing of the past. Security troubles won’t be what they are today.

“Understanding programs and finding vulnerabilities has always been an art that is only mastered by a small group of elites. But no one wants security to be an art,” Wang says. “In the CHESS program, the CHECRS team regards vulnerability discovery as a scientific problem — which it should have been — and is a steady step toward making software and our world much more secure.”

Shoshitaishvili adds, “We could look at a world where entire classes of vulnerabilities are wiped out because all of the software was analyzed by automated systems,” noting it would require advances beyond the scope of the DARPA CHESS program.

The ability to create a tool that is scalable — to analyze more and more varieties and amounts of software beyond the scope of the DARPA CHESS program — is a huge part needed to realize such a future.

“If the system could use human assistance as needed to always be functioning, always be pushing toward a goal and never get stuck due to its limitations,” Shoshitaishvili says, “it’s hard to overstate how useful that will be.”

U.S. and European researchers collaborate on CHECRS project

The Arizona State University CHECRS team includes six top researchers in cybersecurity-related fields from the School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering.

Shoshitaishvili, an assistant professor of computer science, will focus on work to integrate human assistance into an autonomous cyber reasoning system in a controlled and principled way for best results.

Wang, an assistant professor of computer science, will focus on improving the performance of state-of-the-art program analysis techniques and equipping them with autonomous but human-like capabilities of solving security problems.

Tiffany Bao, an assistant professor of computer science and engineering, is an expert in game theory in cyber reasoning systems and how cyber reasoning systems plan their actions. Her work won the National Security Agency’s cybersecurity paper competition last year.

Chitta Baral, a professor of computer science and engineering, is helping bridge Shoshitaishvili and Wang’s work through machine learning research that looks at how knowledge passed back and forth between human and machine is represented.

Adam Doupé, an assistant professor of computer science and engineering, helps to expand the tool’s abilities beyond web browser vulnerability and security to webpages and mobile applications to push their capabilities to a wider scope. Doupé is also associate director of the Center for Cybersecurity and Digital Forensics.

Stephanie Forrest, a professor of computer science and engineering who is also with the ASU Biodesign Institute, conducts research that explores biological features of software and will help the CHECRS team give software the ability to mutate like a living organism to develop an immunity to vulnerabilities. This will help automatically find and fix vulnerabilities in software before release to the public.

For the first part of the DARPA CHESS program project, Shoshitaishvili is working with North Carolina State University and EURECOM, a graduate research institute in France.

Alexandros Kapravelos, an assistant professor of computer science at NCSU, brings expertise in web and browser security. This will help the team achieve their goal of analyzing real software, in particular extremely complex web browsers like Google Chrome.

At EURECOM, Yanick Fratantonio, an assistant professor of digital security, and Davide Balzarotti, a professor of digital security, will provide insight into how expert vs. nonexpert humans approach software and interact with software interfaces.

Wang is collaborating with the University of California, Santa Barbara and the University of Iowa on the second part of the DAPRA CHESS program project.

Antonio Bianchi, an assistant professor of computer science at the University of Iowa, will assist Wang through his expertise in mobile security vulnerabilities and analysis. This will allow the automated tool to tackle issues in complex software, such as fingerprint sensor applications and voice assistants.

Wang will collaborate with program analysis researchers at his alma mater, the University of California, Santa Barbara, where Shoshitaishvili and Doupé also conducted their graduate research and where the Shellphish team emerged to earn third place at the DARPA Cyber Grand Challenge.

Christopher Kruegel and Giovanni Vigna, both professors of computer science at the University of California, Santa Barbara, are leading contributors to cybersecurity research in the past decade and bring valuable experience and expertise into program analysis to complement the ASU team.

This research was developed with funding from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The views, opinions and/or findings expressed are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the U.S. government.

Monique Clement

Communications specialist, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering

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