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ASU film professor says summer blockbusters anchor Hollywood

ASU professor says blockbuster films anchor global media conglomerates.
ASU's Kevin Sandler says summer blockbuster season started with 'Jaws' in 1975.
May 9, 2017

Kevin Sandler talks about the history of big-budget films and the marketing campaigns that drive them

Summer means graduation, vacations and — perhaps, most of all — blockbuster films.

This year Hollywood studios are banking on "Wonder Woman", "King Arthur", "Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.2", "Baywatch" and the "Pirates of the Caribbean."

But it all started about 40 years ago with a mechanical shark.

Today, summer movie season is an American institution, but there was a time when hardly anyone went to the theater during beach months. In fact, summer was once considered by insiders as the movie industry’s low season. But that all changed in June 1975.

“’Jaws,’ for many historians, does constitute the birth of the new blockbuster approach in Hollywood,” said Kevin Sandler, an associate professor and director of Internships in the Film and Media Studies programThe Film and Media Studies program is an academic unit within ASU's Department of English., who is working on a business history book of the cartoon, Scooby-DooThe book will be published by Duke University Press.

That approach has not only become a summer movie formula for Tinseltown, but has grown and expanded over the years. Studios are no longer waiting until the end of school to roll out their biggest films as evidenced by last week’s release of “Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2,” taking in over $431 million in worldwide box-office receipts.

ASU Now spoke to Sandler to trace the history of the summer movie season/blockbuster/tent-pole formula, and which films to watch out for in the coming months. 

People running at the beach
"Jaws" pushed summer vacationers to movie theaters in record numbers, sparking the Hollywood summer blockbuster movement. Courtesy of Universal Pictures.

Question: Why is “Jaws” considered the first summer blockbuster film, and how did it create this successful formula for movie studios?

Sandler: It was the first movie to earn $100 million in rental income from exhibitors, redefining the profit potential of a Hollywood hit after a six-year recession in the industry, which cultivated artistically interesting, but not profitable films. (Rental income refers to the fees theaters pay to show movies.)

It also demonstrated that a pre-sold property released in the summer months when children were home from school can be a monster box-office hit outside the Christmas season.  

Why was it successful? There were many reasons but let’s focus on one — the marketing campaign. First, the film was preceded by a long lead-in period to build up anticipation for its release. The paperback version was released six months before the film’s release. The poster even succinctly states, “The terrifying motion picture from the terrifying No. 1 best seller.” 

Second, its marketing campaign was driven by simple imagery (an unsuspecting, naked woman swimming in in a huge ocean as a large shark, with jaws open is ready to strike) that is featured prominently through various media like books and posters as well as a recognizable, ominous signature tune by John Williams.

Third, it had the biggest national television spot campaign ever that was combined with saturation booking, what we now call wide release, on 464 screens. Although a record for its time, opening weekend screen counts nowadays, like that of “Guardian of the Galaxy Vol. 2,” total 4,347.

Q: Any other films help move the needle on the modern-day blockbuster formula?

A: “Saturday Night Fever” demonstrated the importance of cross-media marketing for a blockbuster, as its soundtrack became the best-selling album of all time. And like “Jaws,” this multimedia tie-in was released several weeks before the film’s premiere and contained the key artwork immediately associated with the film: John Travolta striking that familiar pose on a disco dance floor.

“Star Wars” and “Close Encounters of the Third Kind” showed studios that the science-fiction genre could be prime blockbuster material, like “Transformers” now. 

“Star Wars” also contributed to the contemporary blockbuster mix by featuring state-of-the-art technology such as special effects and Dolby sound to render the spectacle spectacular, as well as merchandising tie-ins, including books, models and figures.

Q: That part of the equation, I imagine, is just as profitable if not more than the actual movie?

A: A movie is now just the first link in a chain of interrelated cultural products such as TV shows, books, video games, records, toys, amusement rides, and other consumer goods and experiences viewed through several different windows and transported to several different platforms maintained by various divisions of vastly diversified media conglomerates. 

They are not simply a big-budget, tent-pole of a summer season whose earnings are expected to compensate the studio for its less profitable movies. Blockbuster franchises are the anchors of any global media conglomerate, creating revenues, opportunities and experiences downstream from a film’s initial release. And, hopefully, if they’re lucky, in perpetuity.

Q: What are some blockbuster films that we should take note of this summer?

A: The first one that comes to mind is the “Wonder Woman” movie since it is the first superhero movie directed by a woman, Patty Jenkins, who directed “Monster.”

“The Mummy” with Tom Cruise seems like a tired property or a property no one’s clamoring for. So I am curious to see what Cruise does differently with this reboot, the first installment in the Universal Monsters shared universe.

In the last several years after he turned 50, he has anchored himself to these types of movies —franchises and science-fiction films like “Mission Impossible,” “Jack Reacher,” and “Edge of Tomorrow” — to remain relevant for today’s audiences.

His star image is now one that has mimicked the weathered/reluctant hero successfully cultivated by Matt Damon in the “Bourne” movies.   

“Atomic Blonde” with Charlize Theron and James McAvoy certainly looks to be edgy and interesting. It’s directed by David Leitch, who co-directed “John Wick,” which I loved. The ex-stunt coordinator found a unique way of staging action, influenced by anime, Hong Kong action cinema and martial arts films, which was mesmerizing and engaging.


Top photo: Kevin Sandler, an associate professor and director of Internships in the Film and Media Studies program, traces the history of summer blockbusters and talks about the movies that put Hollywood where it is today.

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ASU's adult speech and language programs meet critical needs

Millions live with speech and language disorders; ASU programs can help.
May 10, 2017

Imagine going to Starbucks every morning and ordering a drink you don’t want because the one you do want is too hard to say. Imagine interviewing for a job when you can’t remember certain words. Imagine walking out of a summer movie with friends and not being able to express your opinion because you can’t keep up with their conversation.

These are very real situations for millions of Americans who live with speech and language disorders, and they can be even more frustrating for those who don’t have the tools to deal with them.

Kelly Ingram and Karen Gallagher, clinical associate professors in ASU’s Department of Speech and Hearing Science, have heard about such situations from clients at the department’s Speech and Language Clinic. The clinic offers two intensive summer programs for adults with aphasiaAphasia is the loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage. and stuttering: Aphasia Communication Effectiveness (ACE) and Intensive Summer in Stuttering Therapy (InSIST).

Many of the clients they see at the clinic are no longer eligible to receive services through insurance. “So this is an inexpensive way for them to maintain their communication skills and have opportunities to communicate,” Gallagher said.

Another function of the programs is that they serve to train ASU speech and hearing graduate students for careers in the field. The graduate clinicians plan and oversee group sessions under the direction of ASHA-certifiedASHA, or the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, is a professional association for speech-language pathologists, audiologists and speech, language and hearing scientists in the United States and internationally. ASU faculty, including Ingram and Gallagher.

According to Ingram, who also serves as director of the Speech and Language Clinic, social isolation is a real concern for people who have been living with speech and language disorders. It’s something that the aphasia program especially addresses, with a focus on group-based conversation.

ACE is a four-week program wherein clients can attend as many as four or as few as two, three-hour sessions each week. After an initial evaluation of clients’ needs, abilities and interests, topics of discussion are chosen.

In the past, sessions have incorporated book club and movie discussions, and even a classic car show in the parking lot outside the clinic where clients were able to chat with the car owners and ask questions.

woman in white coat leading group discussion
Director of ASU's Speech and Language Clinic Kelly Ingram leads a group discussion with participants of one of the clinic's adult-based programs. Photo courtesy Lucy Wolski

“[The programs are] really driven by the people, the men and women who come here, and their interests,” Gallagher said, “and those can shift from year to year. So we have ideas, materials and resources, but it’s driven by the individuals who come.”

Ryan Calvert has been attending the aphasia clinic for several years since suffering a stroke in September of 2006. He went from not being able to remember simple articles like “he” and “she” to being able to get his thoughts out in a “smooth and succinct” way.

Calvert appreciates that the clinicians take into account his and other clients’ interests.

“What we really like is variety, so we conveyed that to the clinicians, and they took that suggestion and made a lot of changes that helped,” he said. He also appreciates their hands-off approach. “The clinicians kind of step back and let us just talk amongst ourselves, and that’s beautiful. Then, when they see there’s something lacking or there is a disconnect, they intervene accordingly, and that’s really helpful.”

InSIST consists of two, two-hour sessions per week, for four weeks, where clients meet one-on-one with clinicians for focused therapy as well as group interactions. It’s different than some traditional approaches to stuttering therapy, Gallagher said, because it’s condensed, time-wise, and therefore more intensive.

The adult-specific programs are also especially helpful to the ASU grad students who run them. While they get plenty of experience with kids through the several child-based programs offered by the Speech and Language Clinic, such as the Summer Program for Elementary Literacy and Language and the Pediatric Communication Clinic, the aphasia and stuttering clinics help them to get experience with adults.

“Our students need to be trained across the lifespan, from birth to death,” Ingram said.

Speech pathology grad student Taylor Lorengo has led both children’s and adults’ sessions. She said the adult programs have helped her appreciate clients as individuals with specific needs.

“That was something I really had to check in with, remembering they’re not kids,” she said. “The principles are similar but you just have to keep in mind the type of client that you have.”

Lorengo will graduate in May of 2018 and hopes to eventually work in acute care.

“You can see how beneficial these programs are to the people who are in them,” she said. “A lot of times out in the world, they don’t have people trained like we are to help them communicate. The time they get to come in and get someone like us to help them be successful is huge.”